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Slab Frame Bridges: Structural Optimization Considering Investment Cost and Environmental Impacts
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research encompasses the automated design and structural optimization of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges, considering investment costs and environmental impacts. The most important feature of this work is that it focusses on realistic and complete models of slab frame bridges rather than on optimization of only individual members or sections of a bridge. The thesis consists of an extended summary of publications and three appended papers. In the first paper, using simple assumptions, the possibility of applying cost-optimization to the structural design of slab frame bridges was investigated. The results of the optimization of an existing constructed bridge showed the potential to reduce the investment cost of slab frame bridges. The procedure was further developed in the second paper. In this paper, automated design was integrated to a more refined cost-optimization methodology based on more detailed assumptions and including extra constructability factors. This procedure was then applied to a bridge under design, before its construction. From the point of view of sustainability, bridge design should not only consider criteria such as cost but also environmental performance. The third paper thus integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) with the design optimization procedure to perform environmental impact optimization of the same case study bridge as in the second paper. The results of investment cost and environmental impact optimization were then compared. The obtained results presented in the appended papers highlight the successful application of optimization techniques to the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges. Moreover, the results indicate that a multi-objective optimization that simultaneously considers both environmental impacts and investment cost is necessary in order to generate more sustainable designs. The presented methodology has been applied to the design process for a time-effective, sustainable, and optimal design of concrete slab frame bridges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 30
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 146
Keywords [en]
Slab frame bridge, Structural design, Cost optimization, Optimization of environmental impact, Life cycle assessment, Genetic algorithm, Pattern search method
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202948ISBN: 978-91-7729-329-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202948DiVA, id: diva2:1079393
Presentation
2017-05-23, M108, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 15:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20170316

Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Structural optimization of concrete slab frame bridges using heuristic algorithms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural optimization of concrete slab frame bridges using heuristic algorithms
2014 (English)In: OPT-i 2014: 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization, Proceedings, 2014, p. 140-146Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present study investigates computer-automated design and structural optimization of concrete slab frame bridges based on a complete 3D model. For this regard, a code with several modules has been developed to produce parametric models of slab frame bridges. Design loads and load combinations can be chosen either based on the Swedish design standard for bridges or the Euro-code. The necessary reinforcement diagrams to satisfy the ultimate and serviceability limit states including fatigue checks for the whole bridge are calculated according to the aforementioned standards. Optimization techniques based on the genetic algorithm and the pattern search method are applied. The presented results highlight the efficiency of the applied optimization algorithms. This methodology can be applied in the design process for a time-effective, material-efficient and optimal design of concrete slab frame bridges.

Keywords
Frame bridge, Genetic algorithm, Pattern search method, Structural design, Structural optimization
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168535 (URN)2-s2.0-84911878797 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization, OPT-i 2014; Kos Island; Greece
Note

QC 20150608

Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-03-08Bibliographically approved
2. Structural Optimization of Concrete Slab Frame Bridges Considering Investment Cost
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural Optimization of Concrete Slab Frame Bridges Considering Investment Cost
2016 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, p. 982-994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study investigates computer-automated design and structural optimization of concrete slab frame bridges considering investment cost based on a complete 3D model. Thus, a computer code with several modules has been developed to produce parametric models of slab frame bridges. Design loads and load combinations are based on the Eurocode design standard and the Swedish design standard for bridges. The necessary reinforcement diagrams to satisfy the ultimate and serviceability limit states, including fatigue checks for the whole bridge, are calculated according to the aforementioned standards. Optimization techniques based on the genetic algorithm and the pattern search method are applied. A case study is presented to highlight the efficiency of the applied optimization algorithms. This methodology has been applied in the design process for the time-effective, material-efficient, and optimal design of concrete slab frame bridges

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
David Publishing Company, 2016
Keywords
Slab frame bridge, structural design, structural optimization, genetic algorithm, pattern search method
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202946 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2016.09.002 (DOI)
Note

QC 20170314

Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges
2017 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements yet of a higher concrete class, while cost optimization by considering extra constructability factors provided thicker sections and easier to construct design. This dissimilarity in the results highlights the importance of combining environmental impact (and its associated environmental cost) and investment cost to find more material-efficient, economical, sustainable and time-effective bridge solutions.

Keywords
LCA, slab frame bridge, environmental impact, structural optimization, pattern search
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202947 (URN)
Note

QC 20170314

Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-30Bibliographically approved

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