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On the polymer-based nanocomposites for electrical switching applications
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5547-3986
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent research demonstrated that polymer based nanocomposites (PNCs) have been engineered in order to improve the arc interruption capability of the circuit breakers. PNCs are the combination of nano-sized inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) and polymers, opened up new developments in materials science and engineering applications. Inorganic NPs are selected based on their physical and chemical properties which could make multifunctional PNCs in order to interrupt the electrical arcs effectively. In particular, we presented the PNCs fabricated by using CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO and Au NPs in a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix via in-situ polymerization method, recently developed method to avoid NPs agglomeration, leading to good spatial distribution in the polymer matrix. Thus, several samples with various wt% of NPs in PMMA matrix have been fabricated. These PNCs have been characterized in detail for the morphology of NPs, interaction between NPs and polymer matrix, and radiative/thermal energy absorption properties. In the next stage, PNCs are tested to determine their arc interruption performance and impact on the electrical arcs of current 1.6 kA generated using a specially designed test set-up. When PNCs interact with the electrical arcs, they generate ablation of chemical species towards core of the electrical arc, resulting in cooling-down the arc due to strong temperature and pressure gradient in the arc quenching domain. This thesis demonstrates for the first time that these engineered PNCs are easily processed, reproducible, and can be used to improve the arc interruption process in electrical switching applications.

Abstract [sv]

Ny forskning har visat att polymerbaserade nanokompositer (PNCs) har utformats för att förbättra strömbrytares förmåga att undvika ljusbågar vid överslag. PNCs är en kombination av nanostora oorganiska nanopartiklar (NP) och polymerer, som har öppnat upp för ny utveckling inom materialvetenskap och tekniska tillämpningar. Oorganiska NP väljs baserat på deras fysikaliska och kemiska egenskaper som kan hjälpa PNCs att motverka elektriska ljusbågar effektivt. I synnerhet, presenterade vi PNCs tillverkade genom användning av CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO och Au NP i en poly (metylmetakrylat) (PMMA)-matris via in situ-polymerisationsmetod, nyligen utvecklad för att undvika NP-agglomerering, vilket leder till god rumslig fördelning i polymermatrisen. Därför har flera prover med olika vikt% av NP i PMMA-matris tillverkats. Dessa PNCs har utvärderats i detalj för NP-morfologi, interaktion mellan NP och polymermatris, och strålnings- och värmeenergiabsorption. I nästa skede testas PNCs för att bestämma deras förmåga att undvika ljusbågar och påverkan på de elektriska ljusbågarna av 1,6 kA strömstyrka, genererade med hjälp av en specialdesignad test-set-up. När PNCs interagerar med de elektriska ljusbågarna, genererar de ablation av kemiska ämnen mot kärnan i den elektriska ljusbågen, vilket resulterar i nedkylning av ljusbågen på grund av starka temperatur- och tryckgradienter i området. Denna avhandling visar för första gången att dessa konstruerade PNCs är lätta att framställa, reproducerbara, och kan användas för att förbättra avbrottsprocessen för ljusbågen i elektriska kopplingstillämpningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 62
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2017:08
Keyword [en]
Polymer-based nanocomposites, Inorganic nanoparticles, Electrical arcs, Circuit breakers, Ablation/Outgassing, Arc interruption capability, PMMA, CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO, Au, Radiative energy, Electric power, Arc temperature.
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202702ISBN: 978-91-7729-288-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202702DiVA, id: diva2:1078217
Public defence
2017-03-24, FA31, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Albanova Universitetscentrum, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, D0564701Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0002
Note

QC 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Spectroscopic investigations of the ablated species from the polymers exposed to electric arcs in air
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroscopic investigations of the ablated species from the polymers exposed to electric arcs in air
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2015 (English)In: 2015 3rd International Conference on Electric Power Equipment - Switching Technology, ICEPE-ST 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 337-340Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Polymeric walls have been widely used in the last decades to improve the arc interruption process in electrical switching applications. This improvement is achieved by the evaporation (ablation) of the polymeric walls due to the highly energetic radiation generated by the electrical arcs. This experimental study deals with polymeric walls that are exposed to the electrical arcs generated between a 5 mm air gap with prospective current of 1.4 kA. In this paper, two different techniques are discussed aiming at the identification of the dominant ablated species produced during the arc interruption process, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolved gases (EGA). In addition, the morphological and chemical changes on the surface of the exposed polymeric walls are analyzed by microscopical techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
Keyword
arc interruption process, Electrical arcs, FTIR spectroscopy, polymer ablation, Ablation, Chemical analysis, Electric arcs, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Switching networks, Thermogravimetric analysis, Chemical change, Electrical arc, Electrical switching, Energetic radiation, Fourier transform infra reds, Spectroscopic investigations, Polymers
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186782 (URN)10.1109/ICEPE-ST.2015.7368331 (DOI)000380583500072 ()2-s2.0-84962855629 (Scopus ID)9781467374149 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
3rd International Conference on Electric Power Equipment - Switching Technology, ICEPE-ST 2015, Haeundae Grand HotelHaeundae-Beach Road 217, Haeundae-guBusan, South Korea, 25 October 2015 through 28 October 2015
Note

QC 20160520

Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
2. Improving Uv Radiation Absorption by Copper Oxide NPs/PMMA Nanocomposites for Electrical Switching Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving Uv Radiation Absorption by Copper Oxide NPs/PMMA Nanocomposites for Electrical Switching Applications
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2015 (English)In: Powder metallurgy and metal ceramics, ISSN 1068-1302, E-ISSN 1573-9066, Vol. 54, no 7-8, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanocomposites based on the radiation absorbing polymer (PNCs) are of interest for a variety of applications including circuit breakers, UV-shielding windows, contact lenses, and glasses among others. Such PNCs can be made by incorporating suitable radiation absorbing nanoparticles into a polymeric matrix by in situ polymerization. In this study, spherical nanoparticles (5-6 nm) of oleic acid (OA) surface modified cupric oxide (CuO) are synthesized and used to improve the ultra-violet (UV) radiation absorption property of a polymer matrix, i.e., polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The synthesis of spherical CuO nanoparticles, surface modification using OA, dispersion of CuO nanoparticles with different concentrations in PMMA, and UV radiation absorption property of the resultant PNC are investigated. Two different PNCs are produced using OA modified CuO nanoparticles with different concentrations. As synthesized CuO nanoparticles and OA modified CuO nanoparticles are examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The UV absorption edges are evaluated from the UV-Vis absorption spectra by using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the UV radiation absorption of the PNC with higher concentration of CuO nanoparticles is improved compared with PMMA and the absorption edge moved towards longer wavelengths i.e., from 271 to 281 nm. These PNCs are successful in arc interruption process by absorbing a broad range of radiation emitted from high-energy copper arcs produced in the circuit breakers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keyword
polymer-based nanocomposites, cupric oxide, UV-absorption, nanoparticles, circuit breaker
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180142 (URN)10.1007/s11106-015-9728-1 (DOI)000366156700003 ()2-s2.0-84957429698 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160113

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Engineered PMMA-CuO nanocomposites for improving the electric arc interruption process in electrical switching applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineered PMMA-CuO nanocomposites for improving the electric arc interruption process in electrical switching applications
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polymer-based nanocomposites (PNCs) display fascinating functionalities to be useful in electrical switching applications like circuit breakers, switch gears, etc. These PNCs are fabricated by incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymer by in-situ polymerization. When the PNCs interrupt the high energetic fault currents generate between the two contacts in a circuit breaker, they outgas (ablation) chemical species and cooling gases, which change the thermodynamic properties of the arcing environment leading to quench the electrical arcs quickly. Two PNCs are fabricated with different wt% of oleic acid modified CuO NPs and a polymer matrix i.e. poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). These PNCs are tested with the electrical arcs of a prospective current of 1.6 kA generated in the test-setup. The electrical signals (arc current and voltage) and computed dissipated enegy i.e., ∫𝑖(𝑡)𝑉(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 help to understand the effect of PNCs on the electrical arcs. In addition to that, the computed joule integral and mass loss of the PNCs due to outgassing is reported. The re-depositions of the chemical species are analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the morphological changes on the surface of outgassed PNCs are analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These results help to understand the effect of PNCs on the arc interruption process in circuit breakers.

Keyword
Polymer-based nanocomposites, Inorganic nanoparticles, Electrical arcs
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202621 (URN)
Note

Qc 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved
4. On the electrical arc interruption by using PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the electrical arc interruption by using PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites
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2016 (English)In: Materials Research Express, ISSN 2053-1591, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 105043Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An experimental study is undertaken on the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/iron oxide nanocomposites to determine their potential use for electrical arc interruption in the electrical switching applications such as circuit breakers. Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ¡«11 nmare synthesized via thermal decomposition method and then homogeneously dispersed in the PMMAmatrix by in situ polymerization.PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites with different nanoparticle loading have been fabricated to study the effect of loading content on the thermal energy absorption. Detailed physicochemical characterizations on synthesized material are performed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry at different processing stages. Atest-setup was designed to evaluate the quality of the nanocomposites for electric arc interruption capability. The results showed that PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites have a clear impact on the electric arc interruption and therefore should be considered as promising candidates for electrical switching applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
Keyword
Ablation, Arc interruption capability, Electric arc-polymer interactions, Electrical arcs, Nanoparticles, Polymer based nanocomposites
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201791 (URN)10.1088/2053-1591/3/10/105043 (DOI)000402896900004 ()2-s2.0-84994477219 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170217

Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2017-07-03Bibliographically approved
5. Engineered PMMA-ZnO nanocomposites for improving the electric arc interruption capability in electrical switching applications: Unprecedented experimental insights
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineered PMMA-ZnO nanocomposites for improving the electric arc interruption capability in electrical switching applications: Unprecedented experimental insights
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2017 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 141, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polymer inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) have been engineered for controlling the electrical arc and to improve the arc interruption capability of the electrical switching applications, like circuit breakers. Several PINCs are fabricated by formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) in a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix via in-situ polymerization method to avoid agglomeration of QDs, leading to a good spatial distribution of QDs in the polymer matrix. These PINCs have been characterized in detail for the morphology of QDs, interaction between QDs and polymer matrix, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption. ZnO QDs have been assessed to have particle diameter of 3.5 nm, and their presence in the PMMA is revealed by the unique luminescence characteristics of the QDs under UV light. The presence of ZnO QDs broadened the range of UV radiation absorption of PMMA and the absorption edge is gradually shifted from 270 nm to 338 nm with step-wise loading of ZnO QDs. The PINCs are tested to determine their reproducibility and impact on the electrical arcs of current 1.6 kA generated using a specially designed test-setup. Interaction of PINCs with the electrical arcs generates ablation of chemical species towards core of the electrical arc, resulting in increase of voltage leading to cool-down the arc temperature. This experimental study demonstrates for the first time that these PINCs are reproducible, reliable and provides superior arc interruption capability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Ablation, Arc interruption capability, Electrical arcs, Nano particles, Polymer-matrix composites
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201120 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.01.017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85010782662 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, D0564701Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0002
Note

QC 20170208

Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
6. New experimental insights for controlling the electrical arcs in electrical switching applications: a comparative study on PMMA nanocomposites of Au and ZnO
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New experimental insights for controlling the electrical arcs in electrical switching applications: a comparative study on PMMA nanocomposites of Au and ZnO
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2017 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Polymer inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) are developed, not only due to scientific interest but also improving theelectric arc interruption process in the electrical switching applications like circuit breakers. The novelty of this work isin integrating the current developments in PINCs into electrical switching application in order to extend the limits of thepower switching devices. Several PINCs are fabricated by using pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles (NPs) of size 2.75 ±0.4 nm and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix via in-situ polymerization method. Six homogeneous PINCsamples with ultra-low wt% of Au NPs varying from 0.0003 to 0.005 wt% have been fabricated. We find that thepresence of Au NPs improved the convective heat transfer and visible optical radiation absorption of PMMA. Thefabricated PINCs are tested for their arc interruption performance and the results are compared with ZnO PINCs in ourearlier work. The results of the experiments insights demonstrate the impact of PINCs on the electrical arcs and theirpotential advantages of having PINCs for the electric arc interruption process in high power switching devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Polymer-matrix composites; Nano particles; Electrical properties; Infrared (IR) spectroscopy; Electric arc interruption process.
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202701 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, D0564701Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0002
Note

QC 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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