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Engineered PMMA-CuO nanocomposites for improving the electric arc interruption process in electrical switching applications
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5547-3986
ABB Switzerland.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5678-5298
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polymer-based nanocomposites (PNCs) display fascinating functionalities to be useful in electrical switching applications like circuit breakers, switch gears, etc. These PNCs are fabricated by incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymer by in-situ polymerization. When the PNCs interrupt the high energetic fault currents generate between the two contacts in a circuit breaker, they outgas (ablation) chemical species and cooling gases, which change the thermodynamic properties of the arcing environment leading to quench the electrical arcs quickly. Two PNCs are fabricated with different wt% of oleic acid modified CuO NPs and a polymer matrix i.e. poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). These PNCs are tested with the electrical arcs of a prospective current of 1.6 kA generated in the test-setup. The electrical signals (arc current and voltage) and computed dissipated enegy i.e., âˆ«đ‘–(𝑡)𝑉(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 help to understand the effect of PNCs on the electrical arcs. In addition to that, the computed joule integral and mass loss of the PNCs due to outgassing is reported. The re-depositions of the chemical species are analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the morphological changes on the surface of outgassed PNCs are analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These results help to understand the effect of PNCs on the arc interruption process in circuit breakers.

Keywords [en]
Polymer-based nanocomposites, Inorganic nanoparticles, Electrical arcs
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202621OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202621DiVA, id: diva2:1078064
Note

Qc 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On the polymer-based nanocomposites for electrical switching applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the polymer-based nanocomposites for electrical switching applications
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent research demonstrated that polymer based nanocomposites (PNCs) have been engineered in order to improve the arc interruption capability of the circuit breakers. PNCs are the combination of nano-sized inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) and polymers, opened up new developments in materials science and engineering applications. Inorganic NPs are selected based on their physical and chemical properties which could make multifunctional PNCs in order to interrupt the electrical arcs effectively. In particular, we presented the PNCs fabricated by using CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO and Au NPs in a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix via in-situ polymerization method, recently developed method to avoid NPs agglomeration, leading to good spatial distribution in the polymer matrix. Thus, several samples with various wt% of NPs in PMMA matrix have been fabricated. These PNCs have been characterized in detail for the morphology of NPs, interaction between NPs and polymer matrix, and radiative/thermal energy absorption properties. In the next stage, PNCs are tested to determine their arc interruption performance and impact on the electrical arcs of current 1.6 kA generated using a specially designed test set-up. When PNCs interact with the electrical arcs, they generate ablation of chemical species towards core of the electrical arc, resulting in cooling-down the arc due to strong temperature and pressure gradient in the arc quenching domain. This thesis demonstrates for the first time that these engineered PNCs are easily processed, reproducible, and can be used to improve the arc interruption process in electrical switching applications.

Abstract [sv]

Ny forskning har visat att polymerbaserade nanokompositer (PNCs) har utformats för att förbÀttra strömbrytares förmÄga att undvika ljusbÄgar vid överslag. PNCs Àr en kombination av nanostora oorganiska nanopartiklar (NP) och polymerer, som har öppnat upp för ny utveckling inom materialvetenskap och tekniska tillÀmpningar. Oorganiska NP vÀljs baserat pÄ deras fysikaliska och kemiska egenskaper som kan hjÀlpa PNCs att motverka elektriska ljusbÄgar effektivt. I synnerhet, presenterade vi PNCs tillverkade genom anvÀndning av CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO och Au NP i en poly (metylmetakrylat) (PMMA)-matris via in situ-polymerisationsmetod, nyligen utvecklad för att undvika NP-agglomerering, vilket leder till god rumslig fördelning i polymermatrisen. DÀrför har flera prover med olika vikt% av NP i PMMA-matris tillverkats. Dessa PNCs har utvÀrderats i detalj för NP-morfologi, interaktion mellan NP och polymermatris, och strÄlnings- och vÀrmeenergiabsorption. I nÀsta skede testas PNCs för att bestÀmma deras förmÄga att undvika ljusbÄgar och pÄverkan pÄ de elektriska ljusbÄgarna av 1,6 kA strömstyrka, genererade med hjÀlp av en specialdesignad test-set-up. NÀr PNCs interagerar med de elektriska ljusbÄgarna, genererar de ablation av kemiska Àmnen mot kÀrnan i den elektriska ljusbÄgen, vilket resulterar i nedkylning av ljusbÄgen pÄ grund av starka temperatur- och tryckgradienter i omrÄdet. Denna avhandling visar för första gÄngen att dessa konstruerade PNCs Àr lÀtta att framstÀlla, reproducerbara, och kan anvÀndas för att förbÀttra avbrottsprocessen för ljusbÄgen i elektriska kopplingstillÀmpningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 62
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2017:08
Keywords
Polymer-based nanocomposites, Inorganic nanoparticles, Electrical arcs, Circuit breakers, Ablation/Outgassing, Arc interruption capability, PMMA, CuO, Fe3O4, ZnO, Au, Radiative energy, Electric power, Arc temperature.
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202702 (URN)978-91-7729-288-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-24, FA31, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Albanova Universitetscentrum, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, D0564701Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0002
Note

QC 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved

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