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Systems Engineering for Computing Systems at Accelerator based Research Facilities
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large research facilities are major research enablers for expanding fields in various natural sciences. Traditionally built for physics and astronomy, nowadays fields like life sciences, medicine, molecular sciences and material sciences have become the driving forces, especially for particle accelerator based research facilities. Driven by the ever-increasing expectations of the scientific user community, new research facilities usually introduce novel technical concepts and architectures customised for the addressed research communities. Thus they represent the state-of-the-art in the domain, usually in a unique configuration. Continuous upgrades and adjustments to research trends entail that research facilities maintain a prototypical character throughout their lifetime, leading to a significant degree of openness as a system.

This persistent trend among research facilities has resulted in high degrees of technical and operational complexity. Today’s research facilities are complex socio-technical systems posing challenges to their development, construction, operation and maintenance. The need for multi-disciplinary engineering and the coordination between the diverse internal and external stakeholders make the application of Systems Engineering (SE) highly desirable. Therefore, this thesis assesses the socio-technical factors and proposes methods for applying SE in the particle accelerator domain for effective operational management. 

A common theme in the technical design of large research facilities is the heavy reliance on control and computing systems in virtually all operational and maintenance processes. The application areas of control and computing systems include system control and monitoring tasks, data acquisition and processing, the provision of networks and a variety of software-based services. Both in-house users and temporarily visiting research groups depend on these control and computing systems. The controls and computing systems domain is especially affected by the mentioned engineering challenges due to its broad range of application cases and its highly integrative role in the research facilities; the facilities are thus complex socio-technical cyber-physical systems.

The thesis addresses the application of Systems Engineering and Systems Thinking at large research facilities, in particular for the development of control and computing systems. The research has been performed as Action Research activities at the European Spallation Source, a world leading spallation neutron source currently in construction and at the synchrotron light source MAX IV, both located in Lund, Sweden. The research contributions of this thesis are in the areas of System Integration, Requirements Engineering, Communication pragmatics in engineering, Systems of Systems Engineering, reliability and Systems Engineering Management. More specifically, the following contributions are presented:

An Integration Strategy that establishes SE for control systems at the ESS has been elaborated. It is based on the informational needs for successful integration. The approach guides the generation of integration-relevant information, and supports its accessibility and management by utilising System Integration Management Plans.

A novel approach to the process implementation for Requirements Engineering (RE) has been developed. It is based on tailoring views, activity patterns, informational structures, tools and services, and has been applied to the ESS control system development. Benefits of treating the RE process implementation itself as an Agile project are presented.

Systems of Systems (SoS) Engineering has been tailored for application at the ESS regarding mission critical systems.  This case study investigates the SoS concepts for research facilities and indicates their suitability. Further, the Systems of Systems Engineering tailoring has been inspired by and drawing upon key concepts from functional safety standards in order to meet the high reliability expectations towards the ESS.  This approach presents a way to achieve high reliability goals for complex systems that surpass more traditional system complexity levels.

A support concept for Systems Engineering Management (SEM) in environments with low degrees of stable, consistent development processes and documentation quality is also presented. The concept, named Conceptual Reasoning, describes the utilisation of viewpoints and the interrelation of elements between them on a conceptual level. Conscious improvement of Conceptual Reasoning practices in system developments is a way to enhance the success of crucial stakeholder communication.

All solutions were derived from and tested in the Action Research setting. The practical utilization of Systems Engineering in multiple, domain-typical system developments has been continuously analysed for barriers to SE application, and resulted in recommendations for Systems Engineering Management (SEM) in the domain. An SEM reference model is presented as a support tool for Systems Engineering managers in the domain, which aids in the identification of SE problems.

Future research goals are motivated and research methodology aspects in this field are discussed in order to encourage further progress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 163
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:04
Keyword [en]
Systems Engineering, control system, computing system, particle accelerator, research facility
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202598ISBN: 978-91-7729-296-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202598DiVA, id: diva2:1077826
Public defence
2017-03-24, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170302

Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-01 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Requirements Engineering for Control and Computing Systems at large research facilities: Process implementation and a case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements Engineering for Control and Computing Systems at large research facilities: Process implementation and a case study
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the comprehensive implementation of requirements engineering processes in the controls and computing domain at large research facilities, made concrete in a case study on the world-leading, accelerator-based research facility for neutron science, the European Spallation Source (ESS). The implementation of requirements engineering establishes views (e.g. functional, data, hardware, etc.), informational structures, activity patterns, tools and services suitable for this domain. Adequate views and patterns for information related to requirements engineering need to be derived from the characteristics of the organizational environment, domain-specific best practices, and target systems’ characteristics. All this forms the foundation for the design and application of requirements engineering activity patterns, tools and support services. Our key message is: For the successful deployment and operation of control and computing systems, a research facility needs to implement requirements engineering to provide views, informational structures, activity patterns, tools and services suitable to the domain. The RE implementation effort benefits from being managed as a multi-faceted project itself, and has properties which render an Agile management approach beneficial.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171052 (URN)
Conference
25th annual INCOSE International Symposium
Note

QC 20150917

Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
2. Conceptual reasoning in the development of particle accelerator control systems: A case study on controls for a novel accelerator design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual reasoning in the development of particle accelerator control systems: A case study on controls for a novel accelerator design
2016 (English)In: 2016 11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the relevance of certain semiformal communication (we call 'Conceptual Reasoning') in the controls and computing systems development at particle accelerator research facilities, and promotes its facilitation in the domain. The chosen research methodology approach is based on participatory research and intervention in a real engineering environment. An introduction to the concept of viewpoints in Systems Engineering literature is given. The idea of Conceptual Reasoning, which constitutes a practical mean of integrating different viewpoints, is explained. The relevance of Conceptual Reasoning in the development of particle accelerator based research facilities is outlined based on the characteristic properties of this type of engineering environment. A case study on Conceptual Reasoning in the domain is described, exemplified in more detail for the controls of a novel, advanced neutron spallation system. Initial case study results are presented, indicating benefits of introducing certain diagram types and their tailoring to domain-Typical concerns. A discussion and evaluation of the case study results and the applied research methodology conclude the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keyword
architecture, conceptual reasoning, control systems, integration, particle accelerators, viewpoints, Systems engineering, Accelerator control systems, Characteristic properties, Engineering environment, Participatory research, Research facilities, Research methodologies, Acceleration
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194959 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542923 (DOI)000389776900037 ()2-s2.0-84985940532 (Scopus ID)9781467387279 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2016, 12 June 2016 through 16 June 2016
Note

QC 20161123

Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
3. An Integration Strategy for Controls and Computing Systems at a large Particle Accelerator based Research Facility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integration Strategy for Controls and Computing Systems at a large Particle Accelerator based Research Facility
2016 (English)In: 2016 11TH SYSTEMS OF SYSTEM ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (SOSE), IEEE, IEEE, 2016, article id 7542922Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel approach for the elaboration of an integration strategy for controls and computing systems at large particle accelerator based research facilities. The approach is applied in a specific case study conducted at the world-leading neutron science facility European Spallation Source (ESS). First, an introduction to the term 'integration' in the Systems Engineering literature is presented. Also, the common integration practices and challenges in the domain of controls and computing systems for particle accelerators are described. An approach for the elaboration of an integration strategy is proposed. It is based on the information needs for successful integration in this domain. The approach has been applied to a case study and the first preliminary results are shown. Systems-of-systems (SoS) characteristics of the case study are outlined. A discussion and evaluation of the result from the case study and the applied research methodology conclude the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keyword
integration, control system, particle accelerator
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200004 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542922 (DOI)000389776900036 ()2-s2.0-84985991769 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8727-9 (ISBN)
Conference
11th IEEE System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), JUN 12-16, 2016, Kongsberg, NORWAY
Note

QC 20170130

Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-20 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved

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