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På andra sidan myntet: En kvalitativ studie om offentlig upphandling under flyktingkrisen 2015
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
On the other side of the coin : A qualitative study of public procurement during the European refugee crisis 2015 (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Under hösten 2015 drabbades Europa av den största flyktingkrisen i modern tid. Av de totalt 163 000 flyktingar som passerade den svenska gränsen var många ensamkommande barn som fördelades ut i kommunerna av Migrationsverket. Kommunerna kan i sin tur delvis hantera detta mottagande genom ramavtalsupphandling av asylplatser, men behovet har tidigare år varit litet. Flyktingkrisen ökade således dramatiskt efterfrågan på platser, vilket försatte kommunerna i en pressad situation och ställde krav på resiliens.

Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva och förstå hur offentlig upphandling fungerar i en krissituation, genom att undersöka kommunernas upphandling av HVB-hem och konsulentstödda familjehem/jourhem under hösten 2015 samt se hur dessa hanterat sitt mottagande av ensamkommande flyktingbarn.

Metod: Syftet uppnås genom en kvalitativ flerfallstudie fokuserad på ett fåtal undersökta kommuner. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom nio semistrukturerade intervjuer samt sekundärdata i form av en dokumentstudie.

Slutsats: Offentlig upphandling är idag reglerat av en mycket strikt och tidskrävande lagstiftning som i detalj styr upphandlingsförfarandet för berörda myndigheter. Endast mindre upphandlingar tar minst ett halvår att genomföra, oavsett hur stort behovet på den aktuella varan är. Eftersom krissituationer karaktäriseras av tidsbrist och överraskning fungerar dessa således dåligt tillsammans, vilket var tydligt under flyktingkrisen. De ökade flyktingströmmarna skapade då ett stort platsbehov som snabbt behövde hanteras, men nya ramavtal skulle ändå inte finnas att tillgå förrän långt in på 2016. I krissituationer får därför upphandling ske genom direktupphandling, vilket dock kunnat innebära en betydligt högre prisnivå. Hur kommunerna sedan hanterat sitt flyktingmottagande har till stor del berott på vilka förutsättningar som funnits. De som kunnat bygga ut egna HVB-hem och överbelägga dessa och/eller haft det lättare att värva egna familjehem kunde rent ekonomiskt anta ett mer resilient bemötande av krisen än de kommuner som tvingats direktupphandla. Ur ett sammantaget perspektiv är bedömningen svårare då alla alternativ haft olika för- och nackdelar som måste vägas mot varandra.

Abstract [en]

Background: During the fall of 2015 Europe suffered from the most severe refugee crisis in modern time. Out of the 163 000 refugees that crossed the Swedish border about 35 000 were classified as unaccompanied minors, whom were later allocated to the municipals by Migrationsverket. The municipals in turn solve this reception partly by framework agreements of asylum accommodations. The refugee crisis dramatically increased the demand for accommodation, which put the municipals under pressure and raised the need for resilience from them.

Aim: The aim of this study is to describe and to understand how public procurement functions in a crisis situation by investigating Swedish municipals procurement of homes for care and resident (HVB) and consultant supported foster homes during the fall of 2015 and to see how they have managed their reception of unaccompanied minors.

Methodology: The aim is achieved by using a qualitative multiple case study focused on a small number of investigated municipals. The empirical material has been sampled from nine semi-structured interviews as well as secondary data in the form of relevant documents.

Conclusion: Public procurement is regulated by a legislation which is considered very time-consuming as well as administratively demanding. Even minor procurements take at least six months to execute independently of how high the demand of the required good or service is. Since crises are characterized by surprise and time shortage, these work poorly together, something which became exceedingly apparent during the refugee crisis. The high number of unaccompanied minors rapidly increased the demand for accommodations, but new framework agreements could not be obtained until they had been in procurement for at least a year. In crisis situations, the use of accelerated procedure is therefore necessary. How the municipals solved their reception depended largely on their different prerequisites. Those who could find other ways to create new places besides using accelerated procedure could also out of an economic perspective withtake a more resilient refutation of the crisis. However, from a more multidisciplinary approach it is difficult to determine which alternatives that were the most resilient options for the municipals since all of them had advantages and disadvantages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , p. 87
Keywords [en]
Public procurement, accelerated procedure, refugee crisis, municipals, resilience
Keywords [sv]
Offentlig upphandling, flyktingkris, kommuner, direktupphandling, resiliens
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134804ISRN: LIU-IEI-FIL-A--16/02233--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-134804DiVA, id: diva2:1077112
Subject / course
Master Thesis in International Business and Economics Programme (Business Administration)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-02-25 Last updated: 2017-03-10Bibliographically approved

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