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Non-contact surface wave measurements on pavements
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5665-8288
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, nondestructive surface wave measurements are presented for characterization of dynamic modulus and layer thickness on different pavements and cement concrete slabs. Air-coupled microphones enable rapid data acquisition without physical contact with the pavement surface.

Quality control of asphalt concrete pavements is crucial to verify the specified properties and to prevent premature failure. Testing today is primarily based on destructive testing and the evaluation of core samples to verify the degree of compaction through determination of density and air void content. However, mechanical properties are generally not evaluated since conventional testing is time-consuming, expensive, and complicated to perform. Recent developments demonstrate the ability to accurately determine the complex modulus as a function of loading time (frequency) and temperature using seismic laboratory testing. Therefore, there is an increasing interest for faster, continuous field data evaluation methods that can be linked to the results obtained in the laboratory, for future quality control of pavements based on mechanical properties.

Surface wave data acquisition using accelerometers has successfully been used to determine dynamic modulus and thickness of the top asphalt concrete layer in the field. However, accelerometers require a new setup for each individual measurement and are therefore slow when testing is performed in multiple positions. Non-contact sensors, such as air-coupled microphones, are in this thesis established to enable faster surface wave testing performed on-the-fly.

For this project, a new data acquisition system is designed and built to enable rapid surface wave measurements while rolling a data acquisition trolley. A series of 48 air-coupled micro-electro-mechanical sensor (MEMS) microphones are mounted on a straight array to realize instant collection of multichannel data records from a single impact. The data acquisition and evaluation is shown to provide robust, high resolution results comparable to conventional accelerometer measurements. The importance of a perfect alignment between the tested structure’s surface and the microphone array is investigated by numerical analyses.

Evaluated multichannel measurements collected in the field are compared to resonance testing on core specimens extracted from the same positions, indicating small differences. Rolling surface wave measurements obtained in the field at different temperatures also demonstrate the strong temperature dependency of asphalt concrete.

A new innovative method is also presented to determine the thickness of plate like structures. The Impact Echo (IE) method, commonly applied to determine thickness of cement concrete slabs using an accelerometer, is not ideal when air-coupled microphones are employed due to low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, it is established how non-contact receivers are able to identify the frequency of propagating waves with counter-directed phase velocity and group velocity, directly linked to the IE thickness resonance frequency.

The presented non-contact surface wave testing indicates good potential for future rolling quality control of asphalt concrete pavements.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 70
Series
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1025
Keywords [en]
seismic testing, asphalt concrete, dynamic modulus, non-contact measurements, rolling measurements, surface waves, Lamb waves, MEMS microphones
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201147ISBN: 978-91-7729-263-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-201147DiVA, id: diva2:1073021
Public defence
2017-03-08, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170209

Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-09 Last updated: 2017-02-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Non-contact surface wave testing of pavements: comparing a rolling microphone array with accelerometer measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-contact surface wave testing of pavements: comparing a rolling microphone array with accelerometer measurements
2016 (English)In: Smart Structures and Systems, ISSN 1738-1584, E-ISSN 1738-1991, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rayleigh wave velocity along a straight survey line on a concrete plate is measured in order to compare different non-destructive data acquisition techniques. Results from a rolling non-contact data acquisition system using air-coupled microphones are compared to conventional stationary accelerometer results. The results show a good match between the two acquisition techniques. Rolling measurements were found to provide a fast and reliable alternative to stationary system for stiffness determination. However, the non-contact approach is shown to be sensitive to unevenness of the measured surface. Measures to overcome this disadvantage are discussed and demonstrated using both forward and reverse rolling measurements.

Keywords
Non-destructive testing, seismic testing, Lamb waves, surface waves, material characterization
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155908 (URN)10.12989/sss.2016.17.1.001 (DOI)000373916400002 ()2-s2.0-84957577517 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Effect of Surface Unevenness on In Situ Measurements and Theoretical Simulation in Non-Contact Surface Wave Measurements Using a Rolling Microphone Array
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Surface Unevenness on In Situ Measurements and Theoretical Simulation in Non-Contact Surface Wave Measurements Using a Rolling Microphone Array
2015 (English)In: NDT-CE2015 proceedings, Berlin: NDT , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Non-destructive seismic testing using air-coupled microphones is today an attractive alternative to the more conventional stationary accelerometer testing, in order to perform fast and reliable material characterization on pavement structures. A multichannel microphone array enables fast mobile data collection using a rolling trolley. It is essential that the microphone array and the material surface are perfectly aligned to receive a correct result. This study presents estimations of the calculation errors due to misalignments between the microphone array and the material surface. It is shown that even small misalignments can cause large errors. A realistic pavement roughness is simulated in order to quantify the errors in different situations and for different materials (stiffness). A simple solution to correct the errors under certain circumstances is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: NDT, 2015
Keywords
Surface waves, surface unevenness, non-contact measurements, air-coupled measurements
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185950 (URN)
Conference
International Symposium Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering, September 15-17,2015 Berlin, Germany
Note

QC 20160503

Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2017-02-09Bibliographically approved
3. Field and laboratory stress-wave measurements of asphalt concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field and laboratory stress-wave measurements of asphalt concrete
2016 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 126, p. 508-516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Non-contact surface wave measurements are performed on a new asphalt concrete (AC) pavement using 48 micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors as receivers to estimate the real part of the dynamic moduli of the AC top layer. Laboratory measurements of core samples, extracted from the field measurement positions, are used to construct master curves for comparison with the field measurements. The real parts of the dynamic moduli from the two test methods are consistent at the field measurement temperatures, and the non-contact field measurements are highly repeatable. These results indicate a possible application for quality assurance of AC based on mechanical properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Asphalt concrete, Seismic testing, Non-contact measurements, MEMS receivers, Surface waves, Dynamic modulus, Master curve
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194359 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.067 (DOI)000387194400051 ()2-s2.0-84988603463 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161025

Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
4. Non-contact rolling surface wave measurements on asphalt concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-contact rolling surface wave measurements on asphalt concrete
(English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Rolling surface wave measurements on a single, thin asphalt concrete (AC) layer arepresented to investigate their use in rapid nondestructive field tests. An array of 47 micro-electromechanicalsensor (MEMS) microphones is mounted on a trailer together with an automated impactsource. Multichannel recordings from single impacts are obtained at 80 equally spaced positions as thetrailer moves at a constant speed. The complete battery-powered data acquisition system enables largescaletesting of newly built pavements. Multiple sets of test results show good repeatability for theassessed shear wave velocity and demonstrate the strong temperature dependency of AC. The presentedresults indicate a possible application for quality assurance of AC using rolling surface wavemeasurements.

Keywords
asphalt concrete; seismic testing; rolling measurements; non-contact measurements; MEMS receivers; surface waves
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201025 (URN)
Note

QC 20170208

Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
5. Detecting the thickness mode frequency in a concrete plate using backward wave propagation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting the thickness mode frequency in a concrete plate using backward wave propagation
2016 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 649-657Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Material stiffness and plate thickness are the two key parameters when performing quality assurance/quality control on pavement structures. In order to estimate the plate thickness non-destructively, theImpact Echo (IE) method can be utilized to extract the thickness resonance frequency. An alternativeto IE for estimating the thickness resonance frequency of a concrete plate, and to subsequently enablethickness determination, is presented in this paper. The thickness resonance is often revealed as asharp peak in the frequency spectrum when contact receivers are used in seismic testing. Due to a lowsignal-to-noise ratio, IE is not ideal when using non-contact microphone receivers. In studying thecomplex Lamb wave dispersion curves at a frequency infinitesimally higher than the thickness frequency,it is seen that two counter-directed waves occur at the same frequency but with phase velocitiesin opposite directions. Results show that it is possible to detect the wave traveling with anegative phase velocity using both accelerometers and air-coupled microphones as receivers. Thisalternative technique can possibly be used in non-contact scanning measurements based on aircoupled microphones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2016
Keywords
Thickness frequency, zero group velocity, backward wave propagation
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155909 (URN)10.1121/1.4941250 (DOI)000373705300014 ()2-s2.0-84957576596 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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