Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Making Interoperability Visible: A Novel Approach to Understand Interoperability in Cyber-Physical Systems Toolchains
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. (Model-based engineering methodology and integrated engineering environments)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-4159
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In CPS development and production environments, tightly integrated processes include different engineering disciplines, development and production departments, and software tools working together, where all of the technical engineering processes become strictly intertwined. CPS development and production toolchains have a highly heterogeneous nature, and supporting toolchain architects is necessary for improving the understanding of the interrelationships between tools. To this end, this thesis mainly concentrates on the interoperability of CPS toolchains with an ambition to improve the understanding of interoperability.

A literature survey was conducted to analyze the literature on interoperability with an aim to understand how the interoperability is assessed. Findings of the literature review showed that the existing methods mainly use maturity-like assessment models to assess interoperability and they focus on selective aspects of interoperability. These models use distinct levels and do not guide the stakeholders on how to improve the current state of interoperability. This revealed the need for a more flexible approach for assessing interoperability of CPS toolchains.

A case study was developed and exercised with an ambition to test the applicability of the visualization approach. In total, three different visualization techniques were evaluated: circular ideogram, node-link diagram, and balloon layout with a clustering algorithm as an extended version of node-link diagram.

This thesis concluded by highlighting that data visualizations and visual analytics are not only a method for understanding the interoperability of CPS toolchains, but also a necessity. Data visualization approaches create many opportunities to make interoperability finally visible and the CPS industry should focus its effort on appropriate data collection, usage, and sharing methods in order to best use data visualization and visual analytics technologies.

Abstract [sv]

Cyber-fysiska system (CPS) är ett resultat av mångfacetterade produktutvecklingsprocesser, som innefattar flerdimensionell komplexitet. I CPS:s utvecklings- och produktionsmiljöer, innefattar dessa tätt integrerade processer olika tekniska discipliner, utvecklings- och produktionsavdelningar, och programvaruverktyg som arbetar tillsammans, där alla tekniska ingenjörsprocesser blir strikt sammanflätade. Beslut som fattas av en intressent kan således ha en inverkan på andra intressenter. Verktygskedjor för CPS:s utveckling och produktion har därför en mycket heterogen karaktär, och det är därför nödvändigt med stödjande utvecklare av verktygskedjan för att förbättra förståelsen av sambanden mellan verktyg. För detta ändamål fokuserar denna avhandling främst på interoperabiliteten hos CPS:s verktygskedjor, med ambitionen att förbättra förståelsen för interoperabilitet och, som en följd, vägleda verktygskedjans utvecklare att fatta kostnadseffektiva och hållbara beslut baserade på förbättrad förståelse.

En litteraturundersökning genomfördes för att analysera litteratur om interoperabilitet med syfte att förstå hur interoperabilitet bedöms. Resultaten av litteraturgenomgången visade att de befintliga metoderna huvudsakligen använder mognadsliknande bedömningsmodeller för att bedöma interoperabiliteten, och de fokuserar på selektiva aspekter av interoperabiliteten. Dessa modeller använder olika nivåer och vägleder inte intressenterna i hur det aktuella läget för interoperabilitet kan förbättras. Detta visade att det behövs en mer flexibel inställning för att bedöma interoperabiliteten av CPS:s verktygskedjor. Den systematiska litteraturöversikten avslutades genom att tydliggöra att visualisering och visuell analys visar lovande möjligheter för att externalisera den kunskap som nås av bedömningsmodeller med de möjligheter som visualiseringar kan ge.

För att studera situationen gällande interoperabilitet i utvecklingen av CPS, utvecklades och genomfördes en fallstudie med ambitionen att testa visualiseringsmetodens tillämplighet. Fallstudien visade en verktygskedjas interoperabilitet, som används för att utveckla ett inbäddat slutet loopkontrollsystem med olika visualiseringstekniker. Totalt har tre olika visualiseringstekniker utvärderas: (a) cirkulärt ideogram, (b) nod- länkdiagram, och (c) ballonglayout med en klusteralgoritm som en utökad version av nodlänkdiagram, vilket gav vissa insikter om vilka tekniker som är mest lämpliga. Varje teknik diskuteras i detalj med ett interoperabilitetsperspektiv. De utmaningar och möjligheter som datavisualisering och visuella analyser ger förklaras dessutom för att synliggöra interoperabilitet.

Denna avhandling avslutas med att lyfta fram att datavisualiseringar och visuella analyser inte bara är metoder för att förstå interoperabiliteten av CPS:s verktygskedjor utan också en nödvändighet. Datavisualiseringsmetoder skapar många möjligheter att slutligen göra interoperabilitet synlig och CPS- industrin bör fokusera sina ansträngningar på lämplig datainsamling, användande och delningsmetoder för att på bästa sätt utnyttja datavisualisering och visuella analystekniker. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , p. 34
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2016:09
Keywords [en]
Cyber-physical Systems Toolchains, Interoperability, Interoperability Assessment, Data Visualization, Visual Analytics.
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200811ISBN: 978-91-7729-248-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-200811DiVA, id: diva2:1070875
Presentation
2017-02-24, Gladan, Brinnelvägen 83, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170203

Available from: 2017-02-03 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SCITEPRESS , 2016, p. 141-147Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Complex-engineering projects include artefacts from several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, software components, processes and plans. While software tools can be powerful in each individual discipline, it is difficult to build integrated tool chains. Moreover, it is challenging to evaluate and update existing tool chains. At the same time, the field of visualization is getting mature and visual analytics promises an opportunity to develop knowledge, methods, technologies and practice for exploiting and combining the strengths of human and data. We consider this as a potential to evaluate current tool chains. This position paper discusses the visualization and visual analytics practices to assess existing tool chains performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCITEPRESS, 2016
Keywords
Tool Chain Visualization, Interoperability, Visual Analytics, Data Visualization.
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185908 (URN)10.5220/0005751401390145 (DOI)978-989-758-175-5 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2017-02-02Bibliographically approved
2. Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic review
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed using artefacts from several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, a survey of the literature on interoperability assessment was performed to identify concepts that could be valuable to transfer to the tool integration field.

Interoperability assessment models were identified as potentially valuable to transfer, but lacking in industrial uptake. To avoid importing inefficient concepts, this lack of impact was analysed. Three main problems were identified as; the models either use complex metrics, separate levels or combinations of these; they concentrate on selective aspects of interoperability; and they focus on structure and content, providing little guidance on how to deal with problems. Visualization and visual analytics is discussed as a promising direction to be used during assessment of tool integration. Based on this approach it is suggested that the following concepts are transferred: the elaborated parts of system contexts; types of interoperability; and the theory connected to interoperability as a balance between interests rather than an optimization of a single, uniform metric. It is also suggested that interoperability researchers consider visualization and visual analytics techniques in their own contexts.

Keywords
tool interoperability, tool integration, interoperability measurement, interoperability assessment, maturity models, and visual analytics.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200900 (URN)
Note

QC 20170203

Available from: 2017-02-03 Created: 2017-02-03 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
3. Making Interoperability Visible: Data Visualization of Cyber-Physical Systems Development Tool Chains
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Interoperability Visible: Data Visualization of Cyber-Physical Systems Development Tool Chains
2016 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 4, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyber-physical system (CPS) development cycles include various engineering disciplines, artefacts, and areas of expertise. There are powerful software tools used in these cycles, which can be put to good use by one individual discipline but are challenging to integrate with other tools. This paper discusses a node-link diagram (NLD) visualization technique that can be used to visualize interoperability in CPS development tool chains. The purpose is to help tool chain developers assess the current interoperability status and make decisions on integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced and explained as an example. Data about the tool chain, which contains different structures relating to the software tools usage and the interactions between them, are provided by ABB Corporate Research Centre. These structures are used in creation of visualizations for making interoperability visible in CPS development tool chains and applicability of each visualization technique is discussed with the interoperability perspective. In this study, we also exercised a clustering algorithm for an extended case study and discussed the use of visualizations to improve interoperability in CPS development environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Cyber-physical system interoperability; Interoperability visualization; Development tool chains; Data visualization; Node-link diagram
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology; Machine Design; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196530 (URN)10.1016/j.jii.2016.09.002 (DOI)
Note

QC 20161206

Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-02-02Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(3022 kB)69 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 3022 kBChecksum SHA-512
4f3e516264c762fd8ba53b70cbd10e1ef066a7da293d0ecaf1df367fd82ee5cfbb7d9a5ff7d08f1922f1574dbcc3536ca07ea30aa1799f1b08e3994ae55eed8d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Gürdür, Didem
By organisation
Mechatronics
Mechanical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 69 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 199 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf