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PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. (Construction Engineering and Management)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8107-7768
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The planning, construction, management and use of our built environment are affected by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Sustainable urban development is dependent on the understanding of the complex relations between the built environment, the social activities that take place over time and the interaction with the natural environment. The challenge to understand urban systems on both the local and global scale has inspired researchers and national agencies to develop sustainability indicators to support the planning, construction, management and use of the built environment. Access to open data of our built environment in national, regional and local databases opens new possibilities to generate models of our urban systems to facilitate visualization and analysis of indicators in order to enhance awareness of sustainability dimensions. Here spatial Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) technologies can be used in combination with Geographic Information system GIS to manage data sets from multiple sources in different formats. The purpose of this research is to investigate how spatial ETL technologies can be used to develop models in order to analyse and visualize the performance of urban systems. The applied method is grounded in system development and based on an abductive research approach that was repeated in six studies. Three of the studies deal with the relocation of Kiruna where models of the city was created and used to investigate the impact of mining subsidence on energy supply, infrastructure and buildings. The fourth case investigates the selection of insulation material on the embedded energy in a passive house in Kiruna. In the fifth case an urban model of the twin towns Malmberget/Gällivare was created to explore and relate data on attitudes from a survey to public data on population, infrastructure and built environment. The final case is the development of an energy atlas containing 90% of the multifamily building stock in Sweden. The atlas combines the energy performance and renovation status of multifamily buildings with public data of ownership, income of residents etc. for individual buildings in 3D models or aggregated on spatial scales ranging from 250x250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas in Sweden. The result shows that multiple sources in different formats, both standardized and non-standardized, can be utilized in the extraction of information for the purpose of developing urban performance models. The Swedish high-resolution LiDAR digital height model together property information makes it possible to represent the built environment by extruded footprints to give a 3D representation of all urban areas in Sweden (Level-Of-Detail 1). In combination with performance data (e.g. energy use, renovation status or result from surveys) urban performance GIS models can be created and visualized in applications (such as Google Earth, 3D pdf) to support decision-making on both individual and institutional level. The automation of the process to develop performance models offers a method for customizing information deliveries on the fly using original data sources according to defined requirements. The flexibility and customization are kept in the process rather than in the delivered model. This makes it easier to keep the performance model up to date. For the management of large performance models, e.g. the example of the national energy atlas, a staging phase was added in the automation process, in order to reduce the processing time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017. , p. 170
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61788ISBN: 978-91-7583-814-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-815-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-61788DiVA, id: diva2:1070859
Public defence
2017-03-30, F231, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of 4D public participation GIS to improve communication of city transformation processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of 4D public participation GIS to improve communication of city transformation processes
2012 (English)In: Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction challenges in a flat world : proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress, May 21-23, 2012, West Lafayette, Indiana / [ed] Hubo Cai, Reaston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012, p. 1242-1251Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on a case study of the city transformation of Kiruna we concluded that the information about the urban planning processes; (1) was scattered and hard to understand and (2) not communicated properly for the public to be able to participate. Here public participation geographical systems (PPGIS) and modeling of a project delivery timeline, also known as 4D, are possibilities to improve communication with stakeholders in urban planning and construction processes. As a result, we set up three requirements for the development of a 4D PPGIS communication platform. Firstly, time-space urban planning information must be available and understandable for the citizens to comprehend. Secondly, the communication platform must support two-way asynchronous communication for collecting public opinions and proposals. Finally, the user interface, operations and management of the platform must engage citizens to participate in the urban planning process. An experimental 4D PPGIS based on Google Earth and Facebook services was developed to visualize geo-referenced past, current and future urban activities and support public discussions regarding planning proposals. The prototype is currently being evaluated in the first iterative cycle of the information system development method

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reaston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38832 (URN)10.1061/9780784412329.125 (DOI)2-s2.0-84866252971 (Scopus ID)d589e2f1-c496-467d-b0fb-062c96c23fa7 (Local ID)9780784412329 (ISBN)d589e2f1-c496-467d-b0fb-062c96c23fa7 (Archive number)d589e2f1-c496-467d-b0fb-062c96c23fa7 (OAI)
Conference
Construction Research Congress : 21/05/2012 - 23/05/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120926 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
2. Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 116, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enhanced dissemination of information regarding energy saving and climate change targeted toward property owners is considered to be an important strategy in order to reach the Swedish national target of energy efficiency in the building sector by 2050. Here the municipality energy advisors and the national register for energy performance certificates can facilitate the mitigation of energy use in the building stock. So far few studies have focused on the practical road map to the national target of energy use on the city/district level and to the communication aspects with stakeholders in the creation of energy city models.In this paper a city energy model is developed based on the requests and need for visualization from a group of energy advisors. Six different scenarios are studied in order to analyze the possibility of reaching the energy targets specified by the government in the town of Kiruna. The results show that: (1) it is possible to automatically create city energy models using extract, transform and load tools based on spatial and non-spatial data from national registers and databases; (2) city energy models improve the understanding of energy use in buildings and can therefore be a valuable tool for energy advisors, real estate companies and urban planners. The case study of Kiruna showed that the proposed energy saving measures in the energy performance certificates need to be implemented and new buildings in the urban transformation must be of high energy standard in order to reach the national target in Kiruna.

National Category
Construction Management Energy Engineering
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14165 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.02.057 (DOI)000373749800005 ()2-s2.0-84960080826 (Scopus ID)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (Local ID)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (Archive number)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160310 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
3. An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 128, p. 592-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of the embodied energy associated with the production and transportation of materials during the design phase of building provides great potential to profoundly affect the building’s energy use and sustainability performance. While Building Information Modeling (BIM) gives opportunities to incorporate sustainability performance indicators in the building design process, it lacks interoperability with the conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools used to analyse the environmental footprints of materials in building design. Additionally, many LCA tools use databases based on industry-average values and thus cannot account for differences in the embodied impacts of specific materials from individual suppliers. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports design decisions and enables assessment of the embodied energy associated with building materials supply chain based on suppliers’ Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The framework also integrates Extract Transform Load (ETL) technology into the BIM to ensure BIM-LCA interoperability, enabling an automated or semi-automated assessment process. The applicability of the framework is tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study, which shows that a building’s energy use and carbon footprint can be significantly reduced during the design phase by accounting the impact of individual material in the supply chain.

National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14918 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.07.007 (DOI)000382794200050 ()2-s2.0-84978842557 (Scopus ID)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (Local ID)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (Archive number)e5af1053-d40e-4e8e-aef4-ceecf553ce53 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160815 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
4. Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social sustainability is a widely used concept in urban planning research and practice. However, knowledge of spatial distributions of social values and aspects of social sustainability is required. Visualization of these distributions is also highly valuable, but challenging, and rarely attempted in sparsely populated urban environments in rural areas. This article presents a method that highlights social values in spatial models through 3D visualization, describes the methodology to generate the models, and discusses potential applications. The models were created using survey, building, infrastructure and demographic data for Gällivare, Sweden, a small city facing major transformation due to mining subsidence. It provides an example of how 3D models of important social sustainability indices can be designed to display citizens’ attitudes regarding their financial status, the built environment, social inclusion and welfare services. The models helped identify spatial variations in perceptions of the built environment that correlate (inter alia) with closeness to certain locations, gender and distances to public buildings. Potential uses of the model for supporting efforts by practitioners, researchers and citizens to visualize and understand social values in similar urban environments are discussed, together with ethical issues (particularly regarding degrees of anonymity) concerning its wider use for inclusive planning.

National Category
Construction Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Human Work Science; Industrial Work Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10350 (URN)10.3390/su8020195 (DOI)000371830100046 ()2-s2.0-84960351433 (Scopus ID)9253210a-49aa-4de9-bb5e-eec078352842 (Local ID)9253210a-49aa-4de9-bb5e-eec078352842 (Archive number)9253210a-49aa-4de9-bb5e-eec078352842 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160223 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

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