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Sonar for environmental monitoring of marine renewable energy technologies
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (Electricity)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5205-0961
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human exploration of the hydrosphere is ever increasing as conventional industries grow and new industries emerge. A new emerging and fast-growing industry is the marine renewable energy. The last decades have been characterized by an accentuated development rate of technologies that can convert the energy contained in stream flows, waves, wind and tides. This growth benefits from the fact that human society has become notably aware of the well-being of the environment that we all live in. This brings a human desire to implement technologies which cope better with the natural environment. Yet, this environmental awareness poses difficulties in approving new renewable energy projects such as offshore wind, wave and tidal energy farms. Lessons have been learned that lack of consistent environmental data can become an impasse when consenting permits for testing and deployments marine renewable energy technologies. An example is the European Union in which a majority of the member states requires rigorous environmental monitoring programs to be in place when marine renewable energy technologies are commissioned and decommissioned. To satisfy such high demands and to simultaneously boost the marine renewable sector, long-term environmental monitoring framework that gathers multi-variable data are needed to keep providing data to technology developers, operators as well as to the general public. Technologies based on active acoustics might be the most advanced tools to monitor the subsea environment around marine manmade structures especially in murky and deep waters where divining and conventional technologies are cost.

The main objective of this PhD project has develop and test an active acoustic monitoring system for offshore renewable energy farms, by integrating a multitude of appropriate monitoring sonar, hydrophones and cameras systems to be developed with standards suitable for subsea environmental monitoring. In this project, a first task was to identify, secondly acquire and test sonar systems, then a platform was designed and built, a data acquisition device control systems were developed, finally additional instruments such as video cameras and sonars were added. This systems integration followed by calibration of devices was conducted. The sonar systems were used for quantitative measurements of the occurrence of e.g. large marine animals and schools of fish near marine renewable energy converters. The sonar systems were also used for seabed inspections, depth measurements and capitating flow observations.

So far, the combination of multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems produced good results of target detection, bottom inspection, depth measurements and biomass estimation. The multibeam sonar system was capable of resolving isolated targets located near high acoustic retroreflective objects. Panoramic acoustic images of wave and instream energy converters were acquired using a multibeam sonar operating at frequencies near 1 GHz. The Dual-beam and split-beam sonar systems produced data referent to acoustic background intensity of targets that helps to classify targets according to its size, composition and 3-Dimensional location within the water column. The next phase of this project will deploy the platform for longer periods in order to gather consistent acoustic and optical backscattering data of marine animal behaviour within marine renewable energy farms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , p. 66
Series
UURIE / Uppsala University, Department of Engineering Sciences, ISSN 0349-8352 ; 350-16L
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-314065DiVA, id: diva2:1068973
Presentation
2016-12-15, Ång/10132, The Angstrom Laboratory, Box 534, Uppsala, 16:46 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656Carl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2017-01-31 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wave Energy Research at Uppsala University and The Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wave Energy Research at Uppsala University and The Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update
Show others...
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a summarized status update ofthe Lysekil wave power project. The Lysekil project is coordinatedby the Div. of Electricity, Uppsala University since 2002, with theobjective to develop full-scale wave power converters (WEC). Theconcept is based on a linear synchronous generator (anchored tothe seabed) driven by a heaving point absorber. This WEC has nogearbox or other mechanical or hydraulic conversion systems,resulting in a simpler and robust power plant. Since 2006, 12 suchWECs have been build and tested at the research site located atthe west coast of Sweden. The last update includes a new andextended project permit, deployment of a new marine substation,tests of several concepts of heaving buoys, grid connection,improved measuring station, improved modelling of wave powerfarms, implementation of remote operated vehicles forunderwater cable connection, and comprehensive environmentalmonitoring studies.

Keyword
Wave energy, point absorber, experiments, arrays, generators, ROVs
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Ocean and River Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265218 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Nantes, France, September 2015
Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-26 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
2. Sonar for Environmental Monitoring. Initial Setup of an Active Acoustic Platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sonar for Environmental Monitoring. Initial Setup of an Active Acoustic Platform
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015: , 2015
Keyword
Environmental monitoring, Sonar, Marine renewable
National Category
Remote Sensing
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287580 (URN)9781880653890 (ISBN)
Conference
Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656
Note

Sonar surveys provides vital information of position, size, velocity, behavior and composition, of underwater targets interacting within hydrokinetic sites. A platform will monitor the environmental impacts during installation, operation and maintenance of wave energy converters and marine substations to minimize the risks associated with sub-sea work. Tests are being done in three different locations with different aquatic environments (marine, fluvial quasi-static and fluvialhighly- dynamic). Now, a platform has been designed, tested and the operational and post processing software is being developed. The platform will be deployed at the Lysekil Wave Power Project site and at the Söderfors Marine Current Project site.

Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
3. Sonar for Environmental Monitoring: Understanding the Functionality of Active Acoustics as a Method for Monitoring Marine Renewable Energy Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sonar for Environmental Monitoring: Understanding the Functionality of Active Acoustics as a Method for Monitoring Marine Renewable Energy Devices
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Active acoustics monitoring (AAM) systems can play an important role in the inspection and survey of the subsea environment around marine renewable energy devices, especially in murky and deep waters. Alternative methods comprising a multifunctional platform based on multibeam (MBS) and Dualbeam (DBS) sonar systems are being developed. The aim is to monitor the environmental impacts during installation, operation and maintenance of wave energy converters, marine current turbines, subsea substations and other offshore renewable energy technologies. At this initial phase, one of the specific objective is to understand the functionality of AAM systems. Field tests were done using the MBS and DBS systems. A platform is being tested at the Lysekil Wave Power Project test site and at the Söderfors Marine Current Project test site. Preliminary results show that the MBS produces better acoustic images when the platform is steady, and when in slow-moving waters such as in harbours and shallow rivers. At near field, the MBS is able to track targets < 20 cm such as fish swimming close to hard structures. The DBS can detect isolated targets at far field. Target dimensions estimated using the sonar match the real dimensions of the same´targets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ECOLE CENTRALE DE NANTES, 1, Rue de la Noe, B.P 92101,44321 Nantes Cedex 3: , 2015
Series
European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference Series, ISSN 2309-1983
Keyword
Environmental monitoring, Active acoustics, Sonar, Offshore renewable energy technology.
National Category
Marine Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287602 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 6-11th Sept 2015, Nantes, France
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
4. Sonar for environmental monitoring: Construction and deployment of a multifunctional active acoustic platform applied for marine renewables
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sonar for environmental monitoring: Construction and deployment of a multifunctional active acoustic platform applied for marine renewables
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307238 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2017-02-08
5. Observation of cavitating flow using multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems: A comparison of wake strength caused by propeller vs waterjet thrusted vessels. In a marine renewable energy perspective (Part-a)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Observation of cavitating flow using multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems: A comparison of wake strength caused by propeller vs waterjet thrusted vessels. In a marine renewable energy perspective (Part-a)
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307239 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2017-04-04
6. An estimation of wave energy flux and variability in the Ada Foa region: Towards commissioning of the first commercial wave power farm in Africa - Ghana
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An estimation of wave energy flux and variability in the Ada Foa region: Towards commissioning of the first commercial wave power farm in Africa - Ghana
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307237 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2017-02-08

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