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Suspended forestry machines for sustainable forestry
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). (System and Component Design)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cut-to-length (CTL) logging is a mechanized two-machine solution. The harvester processes treestems into smaller logs and a forwarder transports the logs from the logging site to a landing areaaccessible by trucks. The working machines for CTL logging are heavy and their suspension systemis generally rudimentary, basically the only damping is provided by the tires. To meet futuredemands on operator comfort, sustainable forestry, and climate concerns, significant challenges areto find means for reducing daily vibration dosage, soil damage, and rolling resistance.Paper A proposes a full-scale virtual model of a four-wheeled forwarder concept equipped with twopendulum axels with an actively controlled hydraulic suspension system mounted on each wheelaxle. The simulation results are then analyzed to determine the required actuation power.Paper B presents a performance comparison of a six-wheeled medium-sized pendulum-armsuspended forwarder, with three different suspension systems; active, semi-active, and passive. Amethodology to optimize and analyze forestry vehicle suspension performance based on multi-bodydynamic simulations are proposed and applied for the studied forwarder.Paper C is a model-based investigation of the dynamic behavior of a traditional eight-wheeledbogie type of forwarder with the main focus on identifying critical issues and suggesting criteria forassessing the performance of the machine while traveling on sloped and rough terrain.Paper D investigates the performance of a novel all-wheel-drive pendulum-arm suspendedmedium-sized forestry machine with passive and active chassis suspensions. The dynamicperformance of the pendulum-arm machine concept is quantified with simulations and comparedwith a “traditional” bogie-machine.Paper E investigates how to model a tracked forwarder and how the performance comparison canbe evaluated in multi-body simulation software like Adams ATV.Paper F presents a comparison of the dynamic behavior of forestry machines with different types ofpassive chassis suspensions from three perspectives: their gentleness to terrain, operator and theirpotential for improved fuel efficiency.Paper G proposes a 12 degrees-of-freedom multi-body dynamics simulation model of a standardeight-wheeled bogie type of medium-sized forwarder and verifies the simulation model withmeasured data from the field test that was carried out the actual machine.Paper H reconfigures the model presented in Paper G and compares a medium-sized forwarderequipped with two different track units with the performance of a wheeled and bogie-type offorwarder on hard rough ground, as well as on soft soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , p. 38
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2016:08
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200123ISBN: 978-91-7729-227-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-200123DiVA, id: diva2:1067499
Public defence
2017-01-25, B319, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Four wheeled active suspended design concept for forestry machines on soft and rough terrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four wheeled active suspended design concept for forestry machines on soft and rough terrain
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179412 (URN)
Conference
FEC 2014,5th Forest Engineering Conference, Geradmer, France.
Note

NV 20160119

Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-16 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
2. Multi-objective performance optimization of pendulum-arm suspensions for forestry machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-objective performance optimization of pendulum-arm suspensions for forestry machines
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179439 (URN)
Conference
FEC 2014, Geradmer, France.
Note

QC 20160119

Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-16 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
3. Investigating the dynamic behavior of a mid-sized forestry machine on sloped rough terrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the dynamic behavior of a mid-sized forestry machine on sloped rough terrain
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2014 (English)In: 18th International Conference of the ISTVS, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High-performing forestry machines, such as forwarders, must be able to handle large loads and to operate rough and sloped terrains. Present forwarders are almost exclusively six-or eight-wheeled machines with pairs of wheels mounted on bogies. Consequently, they have very limited chassis damping and levelling capabilities. Traditional forestry machine chassis design is unfavourable from an active machine levelling and operator full body vibration control standpoint. This paper analyses the dynamic behaviour of an existing mid-sized forwarder. The multi-objective concept performance is studied with multi-body simulations and response analysis. The main focus is to identify critical design issues of the machine, specifically while traveling in sloped terrain, and to compare its off-road performance with a new pendulum arm suspended forwarder, referred to as the XT28 machine. The main purpose of the presented investigation is to suggest criteria for assessing the performance of off-road forestry machines when operating on sloped and rough terrain. The target is to assist future research on the newly developed XT28 forwarder that is planned to be in the initial full scale test during the coming year.

Keywords
Chassis levelling, Forestry machine, Ground damage, Hydraulic suspension system, Lateral motion, Multibody dynamics simulation, Off-road, Rough terrain, Rut depth, Shear resistance, Soft soil tire model, Automobile bodies, Chassis, Forestry, Hydraulic machinery, Landforms, Roads and streets, Timber, Transportation, Forestry machines, Ground damages, Multibody dynamics simulations, Rough terrains, Shear resistances, Tire modeling, Suspensions (components), Damage, Machinery, Soil
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168354 (URN)2-s2.0-84926227181 (Scopus ID)
Conference
18th International Conference of the International Society for Terrain-Vehicle Systems, ISTVS 2014, 22 September 2014 through 25 September 2014
Note

QC 20150605

Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-02 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
4. Model-based verification of a pendulum-arm suspended forwarder for sustainable forestry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based verification of a pendulum-arm suspended forwarder for sustainable forestry
Show others...
2014 (English)In: 18th International Conference of the ISTVS, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting process where trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. CTL is typically a two-machine operation with a harvester felling, delimbing, and bucking trees, and a forwarder transporting the cut logs from the felling area to a landing area that is accessible by trucks, or trains. A major challenge for the manufacturers of forestry machines for CTL logging is to (1) further increase the harvesting and log transportation productivity, e.g. by enabling operation with higher transportation speed and on eco-soils, (2) reduce the damage to the soil, e.g. by controlling the rut depth and preserving the root layer, and (3) reduce the daily vibration dosage for the machine operators, e.g. by active chassis and cabin suspensions. This paper presents a study of a novel all-wheel-drive pendulum-arm suspended medium-sized forestry machine, with several upgrade performance steps, e.g. passive and active chassis suspensions. The dynamic performance of the new concept are quantified with simulations and compared with a present bogie solution. The simulations show an 80% reduction of whole body vibrations with an active suspension system compared to present passive bogie solutions when operating on a standardized test ground.

Keywords
Chassis suspensions, Forestry machines, Tire-ground contact, Vibration dose value, Whole body vibrations, Active suspension systems, Automobile bodies, Automobile manufacture, Bogies (railroad rolling stock), Chassis, Forestry, Logging (forestry), Pendulums, Timber, Vibrations (mechanical), Dynamic performance, Ground contacts, Mechanized harvesting, Model based verification, Sustainable forestry, Whole body vibration, Suspensions (components), Machinery, Vibration
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168874 (URN)2-s2.0-84926204696 (Scopus ID)
Conference
18th International Conference of the International Society for Terrain-Vehicle Systems, ISTVS 2014, 22 September 2014 through 25 September 2014
Note

QC 20150610

Available from: 2015-06-10 Created: 2015-06-09 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
5. MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS OF A TRACKED FORWARDER FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS OF A TRACKED FORWARDER FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY
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2015 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting process where trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. CTL is typically a two-man, two-machine operation with a harvester felling, delimbing, and bucking trees, and a forwarder transporting the cut logs from the felling area to a landing area accessible by trucks, or trains. The main challenges for the manufacturers of forestry machines for CTL logging are to address new customer demands and tougher ergonomic and environmental legislations by finding means that: (1) further increase the harvesting and log transportation productivity, e.g. by enabling operation on eco-soils, (2) reduce the damage to the soil, e.g. by controlling the rut depth and preserving the root layer, (3) reduce exhaust emissions, e.g. by reducing the rolling resistance and evening the contact and tractive forces between all traction units and ground, and (4) reduce the daily vibration dosage for the machine operators, e.g. with efficient chassis and cabin suspension solutions.This paper presents a model-based study of a novel tracked medium-sized forestry machine. The machine is a standard eight-wheeled forwarder of bogie type with the four bogies replaced with four passively suspended track units adapted from an off-road military vehicle. The paper briefly summarize how a tracked forwarder can be modelled and simulated using multi-body simulation software like Adams ATV and how the performance parameters can be evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Italy: International Society for Terrain Vehicle Systems (ISTVS), 2015. p. 13
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200133 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 13th ISTVS European Conference, Rome
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
6. A comparison of novel chassis suspended machines for sustainable forestry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of novel chassis suspended machines for sustainable forestry
2015 (English)In: Journal of terramechanics, ISSN 0022-4898, E-ISSN 1879-1204, Vol. 58, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting process where trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. The main challenges for the manufacturers of forestry machines for CTL logging are to address new customer demands and tougher health and environmental legislations by finding means that: (1) further increase the harvesting and log transportation productivity, e.g. by enabling operation on eco-soils, (2) reduce the damage to the soil, e.g. by controlling the ruts depth and preserving the root layer, (3) reduce exhaust emissions, e.g. by reducing the rolling resistance, and (4) reducing the daily vibration dosage for the machine operators, e.g. by active chassis and cabin damping. This paper presents of a number of passive forwarder chassis suspension concepts and compares their performance from three perspectives: their gentleness to terrain and operator, as well as their potential for improved fuel efficiency. Based on multi-body dynamics simulations, it is shown that a passive pendulum arm suspension can reduce the lateral accelerations in a passively suspended cabin with 50% compared to traditional bogie machines when travelling in rough hard terrain.

Keywords
Bogie, Forest machine, Ground damage, Mobility, Multibody dynamics simulation, Off-road, Rough terrain
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165204 (URN)10.1016/j.jterra.2015.01.002 (DOI)000351800200006 ()2-s2.0-84923862318 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150507

Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
7. MODEL-BASED PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TRACKED FORWARDERS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MODEL-BASED PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TRACKED FORWARDERS
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) [Artistic work] Submitted
Abstract [en]

The predominant forest harvesting method in northern Europe is the cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting methodthat is performed by specialized two-machines, a harvester and a forwarder, and both machines are usually sixoreight wheeled machines with pairs of wheels mounted on bogies. Under soft ground or snow conditions, bogietracks and bogie chains are used to improve mobility and tractive performance. The main engineering challengewhen developing the next generation of forwarders is to reduce whole-body vibrations and soil damage. Due tothe small global market for CTL-machines, these challenges preferably should be addressed with a singlemachine architecture.The focus of this study is to analyse and compare the interaction with very soft soil and the dynamicperformance on hard rough terrain of a medium-sized forwarder equipped with two conceptually differentforwarder track units, namely a track unit with pendulum arm suspended ground wheels and bogie suspendedground wheels, with the performance of a wheeled and bogie-type of forwarder.The simulation results show that tracked forwarders have less negative impact on the soil than wheeledforwarders due to its significantly larger footprint area. Furthermore, it is shown that tracked forwardersequipped with pendulum-arm suspended road wheels are slightly gentler for the operator in terms of whole-bodyvibrations, when operating on hard rough terrain, compared to wheeled forwarders. Furthermore, they are alsosignificantly better than the bogie-type of track unit.

Keywords
bogie, forestry, ground damage, off-road machine, rough terrain, whole-body vibrations, multibody dynamics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200180 (URN)
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf