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Geophysical studies in the western part of the Siljan Ring Impact Crater
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis utilizes several geophysical methods to study the Siljan Ring impact structure, focusing on the western part of the structure. This thesis, and the three papers upon which it is based, reports on attempts to delineate the Paleozoic rocks at depth within the annular ring graben and characterize their structure. In addition, the nature of the basement, which underlies these sedimentary rocks is investigated.

Papers I and III focus on analysis of the down-hole logging and borehole core data. As well as the acquisition, processing and interpretation of 2D high-resolution reflection seismic data from the Mora area. The borehole log responses were compared with the core lithology from the Mora 001 borehole and information from two other cores (Mora VM 2 and Mora MV 3) in order to interpret the logs. The logs reveal significant changes in the lithology between boreholes, indicating a very high level of structural complexity, which is attributed to impact tectonics. In addition, the log data revealed a high sonic velocity contrast between the Silurian and Ordovician successions and a higher apparent temperature gradient than in the northern part of the structure. The interpretation of the high-resolution 2D seismic data suggest that the Mora area has been significantly affected by the impact. Several potential faults were identified in the area and interpreted to be post depositional and related to the impact. In paper II, a 2D seismic profile from the Orsa area (12 km) located in the northwestern part of the Siljan Ring was re-processed. To compliment this seismic line, first break traveltime tomography results, vintage seismic OPAB profiles, new and pre-existing gravity data, aeromagnetic data and the bedrock geological map were used to present a geological model along the Orsa profile. Reprocessing of the seismic data resulted in improved stacked and migrated sections and better imaging of the top of the crystalline basement than the original processing. Integrated interpretation of the seismic profiles suggests that the area has been significantly affected by faulting and that the depth to the basement varies greatly along the different profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. , p. 69
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1468
Keywords [en]
Siljan ring impact structure, Seismic reflection, Down-hole logging, Gravity, Magnetic, Tomography, Paleozoic rocks
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geophysics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312022ISBN: 978-91-554-9794-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-312022DiVA, id: diva2:1062171
Public defence
2017-03-03, Hamberg, Geocentrum, Villavagen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2017-02-15
List of papers
1. Analysis of borehole geophysical data from the Mora area of the Siljan Ring impact structure, central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of borehole geophysical data from the Mora area of the Siljan Ring impact structure, central Sweden
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 115, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Siljan impact structure is the largest known impact structure in Europe, the result of a Late Devonian meteorite impact (380.9 +/- 4.6 Ma). It is outlined mainly by a ring of lakes and Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Palaeozoic successions are generally poorly exposed, but often well preserved with clear stratigraphy. At some locations they are strongly tectonised with sharply inclined or nearly overturned packages of crystalline basement and/or sediments. Down-hole logging data were acquired in the western part of the Siljan impact structure to determine some of the physical properties of the Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. Boreholes Mora 001 (356 m logged depth), Vattumyra Production (420 m logged depth), Mora VM 2 (94 m logged depth) and Mobillyft (437 m logged depth) were logged for temperature, sonic velocity and electrical resistivity. Logging data were compared to the lithology in the Mora 001 core, which had been mapped in detail, and information from other cores in the area. Good agreement between the natural gamma log and the core lithology was found. The sonic log shows a marked difference in velocity for the more clastic Silurian succession compared to the Ordovician succession and the Precambrian basement. A synthetic seismogram shows that a high amplitude reflection is expected at the Silurian-Ordovician boundary, raising some questions concerning interpretation of a seismic profile located about 6-7 km north of the study area. Correlation of the borehole logs shows that the thickness of the Silurian succession varies rapidly in the area and that its composition differs over distances of less than 1 km. These rapid variations suggest that the study area may be located in a megablock zone that was highly influenced by the impact Caledonian tectonics and changing depositional environments may also play a role in explaining the present-day borehole lithologies. Even though the boreholes are relatively far from the seismic profile and the geology is complex, the new data confirm that the Silurian has significant thickness along parts of the seismic profile. Potentially, the Silurian can be up to 450 m thick on parts of the profile. Further geophysical investigations in the area, including seismic surveying and gravity measurements, may help in mapping the complex structures away from the boreholes and discriminating between possible geological models.

Keywords
Siljan impact structure, Sweden, Down-hole logging, Palaeozoic rocks
National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258831 (URN)10.1016/j.jappgeo.2015.02.019 (DOI)000351646900018 ()
Available from: 2015-07-23 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. Integrated interpretation of geophysical data of the Paleozoic structure in the northwestern part of the Siljan Ring impact crater, central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated interpretation of geophysical data of the Paleozoic structure in the northwestern part of the Siljan Ring impact crater, central Sweden
2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 148, p. 201-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Siljan Ring impact structure is the largest known impact structure in Europe and is Late Devonian in age. It contains a central uplift that is about 20-30 km in diameter and is surrounded by a ring-shaped depression. The Siljan area is one of the few areas in Sweden where the Paleozoic sequence has not been completely eroded, making it an important location for investigation of the geological and tectonic history of Baltica during the Paleozoic. The Paleozoic strata in this area also provide insight into the complex deformation processes associated with the impact. In this study we focus on the northwestern part of the Siljan Ring, close to the town of Orsa, with the main objective of characterizing the subsurface Paleozoic succession and uppermost Precambrian crystalline rocks along a series of seismic reflection profiles, some of which have not previously been published. We combine these seismic data with gravity and magnetic data and seismic traveltime tomography results to produce an integrated interpretation of the subsurface in the area. Our interpretation shows that the Paleozoic sequence in this area is of a relatively constant thickness, with a total thickness typically between 300 and 500 m. Faulting appears to be predominantly extensional, which we interpret to have occurred during the modification stage of the impact. Furthermore, based on the geophysical data in this area, we interpret that the impact related deformation to differ in magnitude and style from other parts of the Siljan Ring.

National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311546 (URN)10.1016/j.jappgeo.2017.10.001 (DOI)000424171900019 ()
Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
3. High-resolution seismic imaging of Paleozoic rocks in the Mora area, Siljan Ring structure, central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-resolution seismic imaging of Paleozoic rocks in the Mora area, Siljan Ring structure, central Sweden
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2017 (English)In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 139, no 4, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Late Devonian Siljan Ring structure in Sweden is the largest known impact structure in Europe. The present-day structure comprises a central dome that is about 20–30 km in diameter, which is surrounded by a ring-shaped depression. In this study, we focus on the southwestern part of the Siljan Ring with the aim to map the structure of the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Four 2D high-resolution seismic lines with a total length of about 3 km were acquired in the Mora area. A three component eighty-unit land streamer, combined with wireless recorders, was used for data acquisition along with a weight drop source. Processing of the data shows that clear reflections are present, but results are less distinct where external noise was present during acquisition or the maximum source-receiver offset was too short. Petrophysical measurements on core samples, core log data and a density model along one line were used to guide the interpretation of the seismic sections. These data demonstrate that fault blocks are present in the study area and that the individual blocks have been affected differently by impact-related tectonics.

National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312020 (URN)10.1080/11035897.2017.1386712 (DOI)000416892400003 ()
Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved

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