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Microscopic Simulation of Pedestrian Traffic
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There has recently been a renewed interest in planning for pedestrian traffic, primarily in connection to public transport interchange stations, since these are important for public transport to constitute an attractive alternative to car usage. This thesis concerns microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic, which is a promising tool for analyzing and predicting the traffic situation in a given pedestrian facility; particularly powerful when the traffic is congested. Important applications of microscopic simulation include comparison of possible infrastructure designs such as proposed interchange stations, and evaluations of various traffic management solutions, for example information systems.

The purpose of this thesis is to advance the capabilities of pedestrian microsimulation toward a level at which it can be reliably applied for quantitative analysis by practitioners in the field. The work is based on an established microscopic model of pedestrian dynamics, the Social Force Model (sfm), and the advances are made in a number of different areas.

To be able to evaluate and compare simulated traffic situations suitable performance measures are needed. A set of local performance measures are proposed that quantifies the local delay rate density and estimates the discomfort perceived by the pedestrians.

The sfm is extended to include waiting pedestrians through the introduction of a waiting model, demonstrated to be stable and free from oscillations. The inclusion of waiting pedestrians in the model is critical for accurate modelling of public transport interchange stations, where large groups of waiting pedestrians may hinder passing pedestrians if the design of the station is poor.

The relaxation time of the adaptation to the preferred velocity is an important parameter in force based models of pedestrian traffic since it affects several behaviors of the simulated pedestrians, two of which are linear acceleration and turning movements. A comparison of observations of accelerating pedestrians reported in the literature and new observations of turning pedestrians indicates that no value of the relaxation time can give model behavior consistent with both sets of observations. This indicates that modifications of the model is needed to accurately reproduce the observed behavior.

An important input to simulations is the preferred speed of the simulated pedestrians. The common assumption that the preferred speed distribution at a location does not vary during the day is tested through observations of pedestrian traffic at Stockholm Central Station. The results demonstrate that the preferred speeds are lower in the afternoon than in the morning, implying that the preferred speed should be treated as a source of uncertainty when applying pedestrian microsimulation.

Finally, a sensitivity analysis of a simulation of the lower hall of Stockholm Central Station is performed to find the most important sources of uncertainty in the model predictions, given the available data. The results indicate that the uncertainty related to calibration is the largest of the considered potential error sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , p. 39
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1767
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Infrastructure Engineering Probability Theory and Statistics Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133330DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-133330ISBN: 9789176857564 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-133330DiVA, id: diva2:1058215
Public defence
2016-06-17, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic
2014 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 159-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated. We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows. Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Keyword
Interchange stations, Microsimulation, Pedestrians, Social force model
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109045 (URN)10.1007/s12469-013-0081-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-08-04 Created: 2014-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Waiting pedestrians in the social force model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waiting pedestrians in the social force model
2015 (English)In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 419, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities. The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations. We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting. We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Social force model; Waiting pedestrians; Microscopic simulation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113715 (URN)10.1016/j.physa.2014.10.003 (DOI)000347017300012 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Transport Administration [TRV 2013/13329]

Available from: 2015-01-30 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05
3. The Many Roles of the Relaxation time Parameter in Force based Models of Pedestrian Dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Many Roles of the Relaxation time Parameter in Force based Models of Pedestrian Dynamics
2014 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 2, p. 300-308Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In force based models of pedestrian traffic, the relaxation time, τ, is related to the time it takes a pedestrian to adapt its motion to its preferences. An example of this is linear acceleration, but τ is also connected to how the agent adjusts to spatial variations in its preferred velocity, and affects evasive maneuvers. These many roles of τ may be a problem when calibrating force based models.

We compare linear acceleration, to new data on, and simulations of, turning movements. The results indicate that the models predict drifting of a magnitude that is not supported by the data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
pedestrian simulation; force based models; calibration; relaxation time; social force model
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119121 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2014.09.057 (DOI)
Conference
The Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2014 (PED 2014)
Available from: 2015-06-09 Created: 2015-06-09 Last updated: 2016-12-20

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