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Monolayer graphene/SiC Schottky barrier diodes with improved barrier height uniformity as a sensing platform for the detection of heavy metals
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
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2016 (English)In: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN 2190-4286, Vol. 7, p. 1800-1814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A vertical diode structure comprising homogeneous monolayer epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is fabricated by thermal decomposition of a Si-face 4H-SiC wafer in argon atmosphere. Current-voltage characteristics of the graphene/SiC Schottky junction were analyzed by applying the thermionic-emission theory. Extracted values of the Schottky barrier height and the ideality factor are found to be 0.4879 +/- 0.013 eV and 1.01803 +/- 0.0049, respectively. Deviations of these parameters from average values are smaller than those of previously observed literature data, thereby implying uniformity of the Schottky barrier height over the whole diode area, a stable rectifying behaviour and a good quality of ohmic palladium-graphene contacts. Keeping in mind the strong sensitivity of graphene to analytes we propose the possibility to use the graphene/SiC Schottky diode as a sensing platform for the recognition of toxic heavy metals. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations we gain insight into the nature of the interaction of cadmium, mercury and lead with graphene as well as estimate the work function and the Schottky barrier height of the graphene/SiC structure before and after applying heavy metals to the sensing material. A shift of the I-V characteristics of the graphene/SiC-based sensor has been proposed as an indicator of presence of the heavy metals. Since the calculations suggested the strongest charge transfer between Pb and graphene, the proposed sensing platform was characterized by good selectivity towards lead atoms and slight interferences from cadmium and mercury. The dependence of the sensitivity parameters on the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb is studied and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BEILSTEIN-INSTITUT , 2016. Vol. 7, p. 1800-1814
Keywords [en]
barrier height; graphene; heavy metals; Schottky diode; sensing platform; SiC
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133260DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.7.173ISI: 000388340000001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-133260DiVA, id: diva2:1057487
Note

Funding Agencies|Graphene Flagship EU project GrapheneCore 1 [696656]; VR grant [621-2014-5805]; KAW foundation and Angpanneforeningens Forskningsstiftelse [14-517, 16-541]; Swedish Research Council (VR) Marie Sklodowska Curie International Career Grant [2015-00679]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-12-18 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-11-29

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Shtepliuk, IvanEriksson, JensKhranovskyy, VolodymyrIakimov, TihomirLloyd Spetz, AnitaYakimova, Rositsa
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