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An Investigation into the Optimal Control Methods in Over-actuated Vehicles: With focus on energy loss in electric vehicles
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

As vehicles become electrified and more intelligent in terms of sensing, actuation and processing; a number of interesting possibilities arise in controlling vehicle dynamics and driving behavior. Over-actuation with inwheel motors, all wheel steering and active camber is one such possibility, and can facilitate control combinations that push boundaries in energy consumption and safety. Optimal control can be used to investigate the best combinations of control inputs to an over-actuated system. In Part 1, a literature study is performed on the state of art in the field of optimal control, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and their applicability to a vehicular system. Out of these methods, Dynamic Programming and Model Predictive Control are of particular interest. Prior work in overactuation, as well as control for reducing tire energy dissipation is studied, and utilized to frame the dynamics, constraints and objective of an optimal control problem. In Part 2, an optimal control problem representing the lateral dynamics of an over-actuated vehicle is formulated, and solved for different objectives using Dynamic Programming. Simulations are performed for standard driving maneuvers, performance parameters are defined, and a system design study is conducted. Objectives include minimizing tire cornering resistance (saving energy) and maintaining the reference vehicle trajectory (ensuring safety), and optimal combinations of input steering and camber angles are derived as a performance benchmark. Following this, Model Predictive Control is used to design an online controller that follows the optimal vehicle state, and studies are performed to assess the suitability of MPC to over-actuation. Simulation models are also expanded to include non-linear tires. Finally, vehicle implementation is considered on the KTH Research Concept Vehicle (RCV) and four vehicle-implementable control cases are presented.

To conclude, this thesis project uses methods in optimal control to find candidate solutions to improve vehicle performance thanks to over-actuation. Extensive vehicle tests are needed for a clear indication of the energy saving achievable, but simulations show promising performance improvements for vehicles overactuated with all-wheel steering and active camber.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , p. 76
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2016:45
Keywords [en]
Optimal control, over-actuated vehicles, Dynamic Programming, Model Predictive Control, active
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-198536DiVA, id: diva2:1057265
Examiners
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved

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Vehicle DynamicsIntegrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL
Engineering and Technology

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