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Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (IDA)
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To cope with variations, disturbances, and unexpected events in complex socio-technical systems people are required to continuously adapt to the changing environment, sometimes in novel and innovative ways. This thesis investigates adaptive performance in complex work settings across domains, with a focus on examining what enables and disables successful adaptations, and how contextual factors shape performance. Examples of adaptive performance studies include a crisis command team dealing with the loss of key personnel, a crew coping with unreliable system feedback in the cockpit, and a nursing team managing an overload of patients. The two main contributions of this thesis is the analysis of cases of people coping with variations and disturbances, and the development of conceptual models to report findings, structure cases, and make sense of sharp-end adaptations in complex work settings. The findings emphasise that adaptive performance outside procedures and textbook scenarios at the sharp end is a critical ability to cope with variation and unexpected events. However, the results also show that adaptations may come at the cost of new vulnerabilities and system brittleness. Analysing adaptive performance in everyday events informs safety management by making visible limitations and possibilities of system design, organisational structures, procedures, and training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1823
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133072DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-133850ISBN: 978-91-7685-596-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-133072DiVA, id: diva2:1054640
Public defence
2017-02-17, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
2016 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 623-642Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

Keywords
Sensemaking; Surprise; Cockpit operations; Re-framing; Training
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132839 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0390-2 (DOI)000386502500001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Man4Gen

Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 78-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989 (URN)10.1177/1555343413498753 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893856937 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
2013 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
Role improvisation, Crisis management, Resilience engineering, Organizational improvisation, Episode analysis
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80311 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0186-3 (DOI)000313737400010 ()
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07
4. A framework for learning from adaptive performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A framework for learning from adaptive performance
2014 (English)In: Resilience engineering in practice. Vol. 2: Becoming resilient / [ed] Christopher P. Nemeth, Erik Hollnagel, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014, 2, p. 79-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Surrey: Ashgate, 2014 Edition: 2
Keywords
Political Science, Labor & Industrial Relations, Psychology, Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Technology & Engineering, Technical Writing
National Category
Political Science Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133849 (URN)9781472425157 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-01-27Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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Language
  • de-DE
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  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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