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Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.

In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.

The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.

To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.

Abstract [sv]

Förbättrad industriell energieffektivitet är viktig för att nå målen i EU:s strategi för ökad hållbarhet. Att energieffektivisera är inte prioriterat inom företagen och potentialen är därför stor. Denna paradox kallas för energieffektiviseringsgapet och förklaras av hinder för energieffektivisering. Det låga intresset för energifråga beror också på att den inte ligger inom företagens kärnkompetens och inte uppfattas som strategisk. De styrmedel som syftar till att överbrygga gapet har hittills handlat om snabbare spridning av energieffektiv teknik. Detta är inte tillräckligt och gapet kan utvidgas genom att inkludera energiledningsåtgärder. För att överbrygga det utvidgade gapet behövs ett utvidgat systemperspektiv. Syftet med denna avhandling är att undersöka den industriella energieffektiviseringspotentialen och möjligheter för att nå den genom att utvidga systemgränsen.

I denna avhandling kvantifierades det utvidgade gapet med hjälp av kategorisering av energidata som inkluderar de mest elintensiva svenska industriföretagen. Resultaten visar att teknikrelaterade åtgärder utgör 61% av energibesparingar medan energiledningsrelaterade åtgärder står för 38%. Dessutom kan energieffektivisering genom energiledningsrelaterade åtgärder förbättras med lägre kostnader. Energieffektiviseringspotentialer för olika nivåer av industriella elmotorsystem kvantifierades och det visar sig att den högsta potentialen ligger i de åtgärder som inkluderar personaldeltagandet och optimering av rutiner. Det bevisar att de vanliga metoder som baseras på tekniska lösningar inte till fullo kan lösa energiparadoxen.

Utvärderingen av det svenska energikartläggningsprogrammet för små och medelstora företag (SMF) som gjordes i denna avhandling visar en brist på kunskap inom energiområdet bland de företagen. Implementeringsgraden av åtgärder föreslagna i kartläggningar står för endast 54%, medan det också finns ett behov av att nå de SMF som inte omfattas av programmet. En internationell studie av energieffektiviseringspotentialen i SMF indikerade att energiledning inte prioriteras bland dessa överhuvudtaget.

För att överbrygga det utvidgade gapet måste externa kunskaper om hur man arbetar med energi stanna inom företagen. För detta behövs metoder som baseras på långsiktighet och systematisk syn på komplicerade industriella processer. Metoderna bör vara universella och tillämpas i en särskild kontext. Ett exempel på en sådan metod för stora företag presenteras i avhandlingen men att tillämpa den på SMF är problematiskt på grund av begränsade resurser. Deltagandet i nätverk för energieffektivisering kan vara ett sätt att initiera energiarbetet inom SMF på en kontinuerlig basis. Dessutom bevisar avhandlingen ett behov av skapandet av en gemensam taxonomi för energidata samt av en central portal där data kan rapporteras och lagras. Detta skulle förenkla övervakning av slutenergianvändning, kontroll av åtgärdsimplementering samt jämförelse mellan processer, företag och branscher.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , 105 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1797
National Category
Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering Construction Management Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Environmental Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132777DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-132777ISBN: 9789176856666 (Print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-132777DiVA: diva2:1049255
Public defence
2016-12-20, ACAS, building A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
2014 (English)In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, 71-98 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014
Keyword
Energy efficiency networks, energy management practices, double-loop learning
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112281 (URN)978-1-63463-288-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
2. Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
2015 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, 472-483 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Energy management, Energy efficiency gap, Extended energy efficiency gap, PFE, Energy efficiency measures
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119842 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.012 (DOI)000371000900032 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
3. International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 104, 282-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
SME; Industry; Energy efficiency; Energy audit
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120435 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.073 (DOI)000357552900028 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [35488-1]

Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2016-11-24
4. Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, 295-307 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
Keyword
Industrial energy efficiency; Energy management; Industrial energy efficiency networks; Evaluation method; Energy efficiency measures
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132043 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.088 (DOI)000383293800021 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2016-11-24
5. Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, 932-949 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
Keyword
Energy audit policy programme; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Energy policy; Energy efficiency measures; Energy policy evaluation
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131868 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.139 (DOI)000382792900081 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-11-24

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