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Respiratory tract infections in children with congenital heart disease
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1777-6190
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is common among young children. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is a risk factor of severe illness and hospitalization. Palivizumab prophylaxis reduces the severity of RSV infection and reduces the risk of hospitalization for children at high risk of severe illness, such as children born premature or with CHD.

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate compliance with national guidelines for prophylactic treatment and to study the Relative Risk (RR) of hospitalization due to RSV and unspecified Respiratory Tract Infection (RTI) for children with CHD.

In a prospective study, questionnaires were sent to all paediatric cardiology centres in Sweden with questions about prophylactic treatment. Hospitalization rates were retrieved from the national inpatient registry. Heart defects were grouped according to type and the relative risk of hospitalization was calculated for each group and for summer and winter seasons.

Half of the patients received prophylactic treatment later than recommended in the guidelines. The risk of hospitalization due to RSV infection was increased (RR=2.06 95% CI 1.6-2.6; p < 0.0001) for children with CHD compared to children without CHD. The RR of hospitalization was also increased for all CHD subgroups, and was further increased during summer for children with the more severe CHD.

We conclude that guidelines for prophylactic treatment were not followed and that the risk of hospitalization due to RSV and unspecified RTI was increased for all subgroups of CHD. The risk was increased both during winter and summer and we therefore argue that information to health personnel and parents should include that the risk of severe RTI is present all year round for children with CHD. 

Abstract [sv]

Respiratoriskt syncytialvirus (RSV) är det vanligaste förkylningsviruset och de allra flesta barn drabbas före två års ålder. RSV kan leda till allvarlig luftvägsinfektion hos alla barn, men speciellt hos dem med medfött hjärtfel. Någon botande läkemedelsbehandling finns inte för RSV, utan de medicinska insatserna får inriktas mot att mildra sjukdomsförloppet och för svårt sjuka barn krävs sjukhusvård för att exempelvis erhålla syrgasbehandling. Det finns inget vaccin mot RSV, men barn som riskerar att bli svårt sjuka kan behandlas profylaktiskt med en monoklonal antikropp (Palivizumab) som ges som injektion en gång per månad under vintersäsong. Vissa barn med svårt hjärtfel får denna profylaktiska behandling enligt nationella riktlinjer.

Vår första studie visade att ungefär hälften av barnen med medfött hjärtfel, aktuella för profylax mot RSV, fick behandlingen senare än vad de nationella riktlinjerna rekommenderade. Denna studie genomfördes via en enkät till alla landets barnkliniker under två vintersäsonger. Vi såg även att något fler barn än förväntat (4.6%) fick RSV-infektion trots profylaktisk behandling och för cirka en tredjedel av dessa barn fördröjdes tiden till hjärtoperation. Behovet av sjukhusvård kan användas som mått på hur svårt ett sjukdomsförlopp är, och baserat på Socialstyrelsens slutenvårdsregister studerade vi alla barn under två års ålder och fann att den relativa risken för sjukhusvård på grund av RSV var högre för barn med hjärtfel än för barn utan hjärtfel (RR=2.06 95% CI 1.6-2.6; p < 0.0001).

I vår andra studie, baserad på slutenvårdsregistret, beräknade vi den relativa risken för sjukhusvård på grund av RSV, för barn med olika former av hjärtfel och uppdelat i sommar- och vintersäsong. Risken för sjukhusvård var ökad för alla barn oavsett typ av hjärtfel, och detta gällde såväl under vintern som under sommaren. Barn med de allvarligaste formerna av hjärtfel hade högre risk för sjukhusvård under sommaren jämfört med deras risk under vintern, medan barn med vad som anses vara lättare hjärtfel hade ökad risk för sjukhusvård under hela året, utan någon större skillnad i risk mellan vinter och sommar.

Att barn med hjärtfel riskerar att bli svårt sjuka i RSV är väl känt, men våra resultat visar att denna risk även existerar under sommarhalvåret, då det inte är RSV-säsong och då profylax inte ges. Vi fann också att barn med vad som anses vara lättare hjärtfel löper lika stor risk att drabbas av svårare sjukdomsförlopp med sjukhusvård under vintern, som barn med svårare hjärtfel. Att denna information sprids till såväl sjukvårdspersonal som arbetar med denna patientgrupp som till föräldrar med hjärtsjuka barn är viktigt, för att belysa att även dessa barn behöver skyddas, och detta inte bara under vintern och RSV-säsongen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of clinical sciences, pediatrics, Umeå university , 2016. , 35 p.
Keyword [en]
Respiratory tract infection, Respiratory syncytial virus, Congenital heart disease, CHD, RSV, Palivizumab, Prophylax
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128024ISBN: 978-91-7601-589-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-128024DiVA: diva2:1048817
Presentation
2016-12-16, Hörsalen, Östersunds sjukhus (Snäckan, ingång 6), Kyrkgatan 16, 83131 Östersund, Östersund, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluating national guidelines for the prophylactic treatment of respiratory syncytial virus in children with congenital heart disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating national guidelines for the prophylactic treatment of respiratory syncytial virus in children with congenital heart disease
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2014 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 8, 840-845 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: This is the first study to evaluate compliance with the 2003 Swedish national guidelines for prophylactic treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We estimated the relative risk (RR) of children with CHD being hospitalised with a RSV infection, studied the extent to which RSV prophylactic treatment with palivizumab corresponded to the guidelines and determined the morbidity of children with CHD who developed RSV infection despite prophylaxis. Methods: This national observational study comprised prospectively registered data on 219 children with CHD treated with palivizumab, medical records on RSV cases and information on hospitalisation rates of children with CHD and RSV infection. Results: The calculated RR of children with CHD being hospitalised with RSV infection was 2.06 (950/0 Cl 1.6-2.6; p < 0.0001) compared with children without CHD. Approximately half of the patients (49%) born before the RSV season and 25% born during the RSV season did not start treatment as recommended by the guidelines. Conclusion: Having CHD increased the rate and estimated RR of children being hospitalised with RSV infection. The guidelines were not followed for about half of the children born before a RSV season and a quarter of the children born during a RSV season and need updating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keyword
Congenital heart disease, Palivizumab, Prophylaxis, Respiratory syncytial virus, Swedish national guidelines
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92644 (URN)10.1111/apa.12658 (DOI)000339986800009 ()
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved
2. Respiratory tract infection and risk of hospitalization in children with congenital heart defects during season and off-season: a Swedish national study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory tract infection and risk of hospitalization in children with congenital heart defects during season and off-season: a Swedish national study
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2016 (English)In: Pediatric Cardiology, ISSN 0172-0643, E-ISSN 1432-1971, Vol. 37, no 6, 1098-1105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are common among young children, and congenital heart defect (CHD) is a risk factor for severe illness and hospitalization. This study aims to assess the relative risk of hospitalization due to RTI in winter and summer seasons for different types of CHD. All children born in Sweden and under the age of two, in 2006-2011, were included. Heart defects were grouped according to type. Hospitalization rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and RTI in general were retrieved from the national inpatient registry. The relative risk of hospitalization was calculated by comparing each subgroup to other types of CHD and otherwise healthy children. The relative risk of hospitalization was increased for all CHD subgroups, and there was a greater increase in risk in summer for the most severe CHD. This included RSV infection, as well as RTI in general. The risk of hospitalization due to RTI is greater for CHD children. Prophylactic treatment with palivizumab, given to prevent severe RSV illness, is only recommended during winter. We argue that information to healthcare staff and parents should include how the risk of severe infectious respiratory tract illnesses, RSV and others, is present all year round for children with CHD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
Keyword
Congenital heart defect (CHD), Immunoprophylaxis, Palivizumab, Respiratory syncytial virus, Respiratory tract infection
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122827 (URN)10.1007/s00246-016-1397-4 (DOI)000381279300014 ()27090653 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-22 Created: 2016-06-22 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved

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