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Integrated Compact Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. (Power Electronics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6633-8384
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To develop more competitive solutions, one of the trends in the development of drive systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs/HEVs) is to integrate the power electronic converter and the electric motor. This thesis aims to investigate the performance and the operation of modular converters in integrated motor drive systems for EVs/HEVs.

In the first part, the concept of integrated modular motor drive systems for EVs/HEVs is introduced. Three suitable modular converter topologies, namely, the stacked polyphase bridges (SPB) converter, the parallel-connected polyphase bridges (PPB) converter and the modular high frequency (MHF) converter, are evaluated and compared with conventional electric drives in terms of power losses, energy storage requirements, and semiconductor costs.

In the second part of the thesis, the harmonic content of the dc-link current of the SPB converter is analyzed. By adopting an interleaving modulation the size of the dc-link capacitor can be reduced without increasing the switching frequency, which is beneficial for achieving a compact integrated system. This method allows for around 80% reduction of the dc-link capacitance for vehicle drives, resulting in a significant size reduction of the power converter and improved integration.

Finally, a communication-based distributed control system for the SPB converter is presented. The communication delay arising from the serial communication is inevitable, thus a timing analysis is also presented. It has been found that stability is maintained even when the baud rate of the SPI communication is lower than 1 Mbps, indicating that other communication protocols with lower bandwidths can also be adopted for this topology.

The analytical investigations provided in this thesis are validated by experiments on a four-submodule laboratory prototype. Experimental results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, as well as the dynamic performance of the distributed control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 123 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
Keyword [en]
distributed control, electric vehicle, energy storage capability, integrated motor drive, modular converter, modulation, power losses, stacked polyphase bridges converter, switching frequency
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196732ISBN: 978-91-7729-196-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-196732DiVA: diva2:1047794
Public defence
2016-12-19, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Novel Inverter Topology for Compact EV and HEV Drive Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Inverter Topology for Compact EV and HEV Drive Systems
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE , 2013, 6590-6595 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a new modular inverter topol­ogy suitable for compact drive systems in electric road vehicles. The topology is based on dc-side cascading of three-phase two ­level inverter bridges, each feeding a set of three-phase windings of a motor. This topology is compared by calculation to the known modular high-frequency (MHF) converter, and is found to have similar losses and semiconductor expenditure requirements. Simulations verify the dynamic and static properties of the converter in a realistic application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Series
, IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
Keyword
Drive systems, High frequency HF, Inverter topologies, Realistic applications, Road vehicles, Static properties, Three-phase winding, Two-level inverters
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134885 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2013.6700222 (DOI)000331149506070 ()2-s2.0-84893587078 (ScopusID)978-147990224-8 (ISBN)
Conference
39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013; Vienna; Austria; 10 November 2013 through 14 November 2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140224

Available from: 2013-12-01 Created: 2013-12-01 Last updated: 2016-11-18Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison and Evaluation of Modular Integrated Electric Drives for Automotive Traction Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison and Evaluation of Modular Integrated Electric Drives for Automotive Traction Applications
(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, ISSN 2332-7782Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In order to increase the competitiveness of the integrated motor drives (IMDs), alternative topologies have been developed for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Within this framework, the integrated modular motor drive (IMMD) concept has been proposed, aiming to make the system more compact and fault-tolerant. Potential converter topologies for an IMMD are reviewed in this paper, with particular focus on the stacked polyphase bridges converter, the parallel-connected polyphase bridges converter and the modular high frequency converter. The machine topologies that are the best candidates to be used in such drive systems are also presented. Based on the FreedomCar 2020 specifications, a comparative evaluation of the studied topologies is presented and discussed in terms of machine design, power losses, energy storage requirements, and cell redundancy. The conventional two-level three-phase drive system is utilized as the reference. Finally, predicted costs of the studied drive systems are compared for both fault-tolerant designs and non-fault tolerant designs.

Keyword
Electric vehicle, integrated motor drive, modular interior permanent magnet.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196729 (URN)
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
3. Evaluation of a Multiphase Drive System in EV and HEV Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a Multiphase Drive System in EV and HEV Applications
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC MACHINES & DRIVES CONFERENCE (IEMDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, 941-945 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multiphase machine drive systems have been applied in many electric propulsion fields such as aerospace and electric vehicle applications. With the development of SiC semiconductors, its superior characteristic makes compact multiphase converters possible. Moreover, by using a single chip in each switch, problems caused by an uneven current split between paralleled devices can be avoided. This paper presents a performance evaluation for a 50 kW multiphase EV/HEV drive system with 1.2 kV SiC MOSFETs. Power loss calculation, cost comparison and system simulation are provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
Keyword
Circuit simulation, electric vehicles, machine vector control, motor drives, permanent magnet machines, power dissipation, semiconductor devices
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193300 (URN)10.1109/IEMDC.2015.7409174 (DOI)000380534300138 ()2-s2.0-84965158304 (ScopusID)978-1-4799-7941-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, MAY 10-13, 2015, Coeur dAlene, ID
Note

QC 20161006

Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
4. Analysis of power losses in power MOSFET based stacked polyphase bridges converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of power losses in power MOSFET based stacked polyphase bridges converters
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), 2016, 3050-3055 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ability to accurately predict power semiconductor losses is essential for converter design and can provide a reference for thermal management. Based on a stacked polyphase bridges converter, a simplified but accurate loss model is used in this paper to calculate the power losses of power MOSFETs and experimentally verified. A special focus of the analysis is the ringing loss calculation since it is inevitable in the switching process of power MOSFETs. In addition, this paper presents a comparison of power losses between Si MOSFET and GaN FET based converters by using the analytical model.

Keyword
Semiconductor device modeling, MOSFET, power losses
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196731 (URN)10.1109/IPEMC.2016.7512782 (DOI)978-1-5090-1210-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia)
Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-21
5. Control and modulation of the stacked polyphase bridges inverter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control and modulation of the stacked polyphase bridges inverter
2014 (English)In: IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, IEEE, 2014, 3023-3029 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to meet the requirements of future electric vehicle (EV) drive systems, new converter topologies are required. The stacked polyphase bridges (SPB) inverter is a new topology which is well adapted to the needs for future EVs. In addition to low power losses, the SPB inverter also has fault tolerance ability and good dynamic behavior. This paper presents a further analysis of the control and modulation concept of the SPB inverter. Simulation results are used to verify the analysis conclusions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keyword
Inverters;harmonic analysis;capacitors; modulation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166468 (URN)10.1109/ECCE.2014.6953811 (DOI)2-s2.0-84934300463 (ScopusID)978-1-4799-5776-7 (ISBN)
Conference
6th Annual IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE’14), Pittsburgh, USA, September 14-18 2014
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150520

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
6. Modulation and Power Losses of a Stacked Polyphase Bridges Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modulation and Power Losses of a Stacked Polyphase Bridges Converter
2016 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, ISSN 2168-6777, E-ISSN 2168-6785Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents and analyzes modulation and power losses of a stacked polyphase bridges converter - a modular topology potentially allowing increased compactness and fault tolerance for automotive drive systems. In particular, an analysis of the impact of modulation on the harmonic content of the dc-link current of the converter is made. Due to the possibility of using higher switching frequency devices, the current ripple of the stacked polyphase bridges converter can be smaller than that of the two-level three-phase converter with the same dclink capacitor. However, higher switching frequency will result in higher switching losses per fundamental period. Therefore, this paper also investigates the reduction in the dc-link ripple current achieved by interleaving the modulation between the different converter submodules. The amount of reduction can be predicted using an analytical model whose results are demonstrated to be in good agreement with results from corresponding simulations and from an experimental setup. Furthermore, based on the experimentally verified analysis, the stacked polyphase bridges converter in a typical automotive drive system is discussed and compared to a conventional two-level three-phase converter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keyword
stacked polyphase bridges converter; dc-link ripple current; modular topology; power losses
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196727 (URN)10.1109/JESTPE.2016.2621349 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-18
7. Communication-based distributed control of the stacked polyphase bridges converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication-based distributed control of the stacked polyphase bridges converter
(English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The stacked polyphase bridges (SPB) converter has gained increasing interest in recent years due to its modular design and easy adaption to different power levels. The realtime control and dynamic data transmission of an SPB converter consisting of a number of submodules are challenging tasks. For the reason that the distributed control architecture can maintain the benefit of modularity, such an approach, dedicated for the SPB converter is presented in this paper. Suitable communication techniques and synchronization techniques for the presented architecture are discussed. In addition, based on a dynamic model of the converter, the sensitiveness of the distributed control system to communication bandwidth and delay is studied on an experimental prototype.

Keyword
Distributed control; modular converter; serial peripheral interface; stacked polyphase bridges converter
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196728 (URN)
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved

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