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Immunolocalization of cyclotides in plant cells, tissues and organ supports their role in host defense
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Polish Acad Sci, W Szafer Inst Bot, 46 Lubicz St, PL-31512 Krakow, Poland..
Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, 59 Wita Stwosza St, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, 59 Wita Stwosza St, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
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2016 (English)In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 244, no 5, 1029-1040 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Main conclusionThe distribution of cyclotides was visualized in plant cells, tissues and organs using immunohistochemistry. Finding of cyclotides in tissues potentially vulnerable to pathogen attacks supports their role as defense molecules. The cyclotide family of plant peptides is characterized by the cyclic cystine knot motif and its diverse biological activities. Given their insecticidal and antimicrobial properties, the role of cyclotides in planta is probably associated with host defense. Our current understanding of the cellular compartmentalization of cyclotides in the vacuole is based on indirect studies on transgenic model plants that do not express cyclotides naturally. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging has also been used to study the distribution of cyclotides, but the technique's resolution was insufficient to determine their tissue or cell distribution. To avoid the limitations of these approaches, immunohistochemical visualization methods were used. Antibodies were raised in rabbits using cycloviolacin O2 (cyO2), and their specificity was determined by Western and dot blot experiments. Slides for immunohistochemical analysis were prepared from leaf, petiole and root fragments of Viola odorata and Viola uliginosa, and specimens were visualized using indirect epifluorescence microscopy. The antibodies against cyclotides were specific against selected bracelet cyclotides with high similarity (cyO2, cyO3, cyO8, cyO13) and suitable for immunohistochemistry. The tissue distribution of the cyclotides visualized in this way is consistent with their proposed role in host defense-relatively large quantities were observed in the leaf and petiole epidermis in both Viola species. Cyclotides were also found in vascular tissue in all the assessed plant organs. The vacuole storage of cyclotides was directly shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 244, no 5, 1029-1040 p.
Keyword [en]
Cyclotides, Immunohistochemistry, Host defense peptides, Viola
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry Botany
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307522DOI: 10.1007/s00425-016-2562-yISI: 000385251200004PubMedID: 27394154OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-307522DiVA: diva2:1047540
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2007-5167Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , F06-0058
Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved

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Malik, SohaibGöransson, Ulf
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