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The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, S-11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
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2016 (English)In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 19, 2659-2666 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The archaeological documentation of the development of sedentary farming societies in Anatolia is not yet mirrored by a genetic understanding of the human populations involved, in contrast to the spread of farming in Europe [1-3]. Sedentary farming communities emerged in parts of the Fertile Crescent during the tenth millennium and early ninth millennium calibrated (cal) BC and had appeared in central Anatolia by 8300 cal BC [4]. Farming spread into west Anatolia by the early seventh millennium cal BC and quasi-synchronously into Europe, although the timing and process of this movement remain unclear. Using genome sequence data that we generated from nine central Anatolian Neolithic individuals, we studied the transition period from early Aceramic (Pre-Pottery) to the later Pottery Neolithic, when farming expanded west of the Fertile Crescent. We find that genetic diversity in the earliest farmers was conspicuously low, on a par with European foraging groups. With the advent of the Pottery Neolithic, genetic variation within societies reached levels later found in early European farmers. Our results confirm that the earliest Neolithic central Anatolians belonged to the same gene pool as the first Neolithic migrants spreading into Europe. Further, genetic affinities between later Anatolian farmers and fourth to third millennium BC Chalcolithic south Europeans suggest an additional wave of Anatolian migrants, after the initial Neolithic spread but before the Yamnaya-related migrations. We propose that the earliest farming societies demographically resembled foragers and that only after regional gene flow and rising heterogeneity did the farming population expansions into Europe occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 26, no 19, 2659-2666 p.
National Category
Genetics Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307547DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.057ISI: 000385690800028PubMedID: 27498567OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-307547DiVA: diva2:1047206
Funder
Australian Research Council, DP120100969EU, European Research Council, 311413Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), b2013236 b2013240 b2015307 b2015364
Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved

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Kilinc, Gülsah MerveGünther, Torsten
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