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Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Side Near Surface Mounted FRP:: A parametric study based on finite element analysis
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Most of the today’s concrete structures are older than tenyears, and the need to strengthening existing structures is growing steadily. This is due to various reasons such as degradation due to ageing, environmentally induced degradation, poor initial design or construction and lack of maintenance, to name a few. Among the benefits of strengthening existing structures are; less impacts on the environmental and financial benefits. Therefore, there is a need to find alternative ways to strengthen concrete structures more effectively.

For the past decades, several different strengthening methods have been studied. Two examples are externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near surface mounted reinforcement (NSM). The outcome of these studies has shown a significant enhancement to the structures. Steel plates and rebar have been used to strengthen concrete structures and have shown good increases in flexural capacity. For this purpose, resins have been used to implement the steel plates and rebar, e.g. shotcrete and epoxy. Due to the weight of steel and its sensitivity to corrosion, new materials have been sought. A promising material for this use is the fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). There are several types of FRP such as, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP). These new material has shown a better performance, due to their light weight, resistance to corrosion,etc.

NSM and EBR perform extremely well in practice as long as sufficient anchorage is provided. However, a premature debonding has been observed by several researchers. This report will study an alternative method to reinforce existing concrete structures called “Side Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (S-NSMR)” in association with a project run by Gabriel Sas at Luleå University of Technology. This is compared to Bottom Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (B-NSM), which is a well-established method. It is assumed that the fiberutilisation will increase in NSM applied on the side of the beam. If this hypothesis is proven correct, the proposed method will also solve a major constrain in the utilisation of the NSM technique. In certain cases, the bottom of a beam is not fully accessible for strengthening using bottom Applied NSM techniques due to e.g. partition walls or beam-column joints.

To test the effect of S-NSMR seven concrete beams, one reference beam with no fiberreinforcement and two sets of three, for S-NSMR and B-NSMR respectively with different CFRP-rebar length, were tested in the laboratory. An analytical calculation has also been carried out. In this thesis, a parametric study is performed with FEM software Atena.

The thesis begins with a study of the failure phenomena occurring in the earlier mentioned strengthening method. A benchmark model is then modelled with a good comparison to the experimental results. An idealised model of the steel reinforcement in the concrete beam is used according to Eurocode 2. Material parameters in concrete are calculated according to Atena theory documents. The influence of creep and shrinkage are considered by reducing the elastic modulus of concrete by 25 %, reducing the tensile strength by 50 % and fracture energy accordingly.

Thereafter, three additional parameters were chosen to continue the parametric study with Atena, 1) CFRP with E-modulus 160 GPa, 2) two different position in cross-section height of S-NSM and 3) five shorter CFRP-rebar each 100 mm smaller than the previous rebar. The behaviour of the two reinforcing types is then compared.

The first parameter is, CFRP with a smaller E-modulus. It could be observed that all beams lost their stiffness, especially after yielding of the steel reinforcement. A small improvement in ductility could also be observed. The utilisation rate of CFRP increased by 13-16% in the case of S-NSM and 18-20% in the case of B-NSM.

The second parameter is, different position of CFRP along the height of the beams cross-section in S-NSM beams. The positions of the CFRP was lowered in two steps. In each case an increase in stiffness and a decrease in ductility could be observed. However, the increase of the stiffness was still smaller than the stiffness in the B-NSM, in all cases. The failure mode changed from a ductile (concrete crushing) type to a more brittle kind (peeling-off concrete), due to large flexural cracks at the end of the CFRP-rebar.


The utilisation rate of CFRP-rebar, is decreased in each S-NSM beam except for S-NSM 2 with the height 25 mm. The reduction in the utilisation rate of the CFRP is 7-32 % and in S-NSM 2 with the height H25mm showing an increased in utilisation rate by 7 %.

The third is parameter, different length of CFRP-rebar. In the case of S-NSM, the failure mode changed from a ductile failure mode to a brittle failure mode. The utilisation rate decreased with the decrease in CFRP length. In three of five cases, the S-NSM shows a higher ultimate load-displacement relation, and in all five cases the maximum tensile strains in the CFRP were higher in S-NSM than B-NSM. Even though the stiffness in the S-NSM is lower than the B-NSM, it would be more preferable to use the S-NSM than B-NSM, because of its higher ultimate load and lower displacements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 103 p.
Keyword [en]
Side near surface mounted reinforcement, Bottom near surface mounted reinforcement, Parametric study, FEM-analysis, Atena, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60412OAI: diva2:1046699
Educational program
Civil Engineering, master's level
2016-06-03, 448, LTU, F-huset, Luleå, 15:20 (English)
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved

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