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Technologies of sportification: Practice, Theory and Co-Production of Training Knowledge in Cross-Country Skiing Since the 1950s
Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2914-4476
2016 (English)In: European Studies in Sport History, ISSN 1999-8589, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Elite athletes of today use specialized, scientific training methods and the increasing role of science in sports is undeniable. The scientization process started in endurance sports (e.g. Yttergren 2012, Bourne 2008, Krüger 2006, Svensson 2014, Heggie 2011, Johnson 2009), among them cross-country skiing. This article analyzes how Swedish physiologists and cross-country skiers interacted in the scientization of training methods, focusing on the technologies of sportification that were used. Examples of such technologies are scientific testing, training logs, training camps and training manuals. Material from archives, interviews and earlier research will be studied using theories of bio-power (Foucault 1998) and sportification (e.g. Yttergren 2006, Guttmann 1978). The article concludes that while technologies of sportification could not ensure a rapid rationalization of training methods, these technologies over time became standard features in the training and sportification of cross-country skiing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rouen: Presses universitaires de Rouen et du Havre , 2016. Vol. 9, no 1
Keyword [en]
Training, skiing, sportification, technologies of sportification, bio-power
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
History of Science, Technology and Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195729OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-195729DiVA: diva2:1045349
Projects
Rationell träning
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Note

QC 20161114

Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2016-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Scientizing performance in endurance sports: The emergence of ‘rational training’ in cross-country skiing, 1930-1980
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scientizing performance in endurance sports: The emergence of ‘rational training’ in cross-country skiing, 1930-1980
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Vetenskapliggörandet av prestation inom konditionsidrott : Framväxten av 'rationell träning' för längdskidåkning, 1930-1980
Abstract [en]

Elite athletes of today use specialized, scientific training methods and the increasing role of science in sports is undeniable. Scientific methods and equipment has even found its way into the practice of everyday exercisers, a testament to the impact of sport science. From the experiential, personal training regimes of the first half of the 20th century to the scientific training theories of the 1970s, the ideas about training and the athletic body shifted.

The rationalization process started in endurance sports in the 1940s. It was part of a struggle between two models of training; natural training and rational training. Physiologists wanted to rid training of individual and local variations and create a universal model of rational, scientific training. The rationalization of training and training landscapes is here understood as an aspect of sportification, a theory commonly used to describe similar developments in sports where increasing regimentation, specialization and rationalization are among the main criteria. This dissertation adds the concept of technologies of sportification to explain the role that micro-technologies and practices (such as training logs, training camps and scientific tests) have in the scientization of training.

This thesis thus sets out to analyze the role that science has played in training during the 20th century. It is a history about the rationalization of training, but also about larger issues regarding the role of personal, experiential knowledge and scientific knowledge. The main conclusions are that the process of scientization never managed to rid training of components from natural, experiential training, and that the effort by Swedish physiologists to introduce rational training was part of the larger rationalization movement at the time. In the end, training knowledge was a co-production between practitioners and theoreticians, skiers and scientists.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 65 p.
Series
TRITA-HOT, ISSN 0349-2842 ; 2072
Keyword
History, environmental history, history of science, history of technology, landscape studies, cross-country skiing, Nordic skiing, endurance physiology, sport history, sportification, scientization, sport physiology, sport science, Sweden
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
History of Science, Technology and Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195830 (URN)978-91-7729-205-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Rationell träning: vetenskapliggörandet äv träning för längdskidåkning
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in SportsMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Environmental Protection Agency
Note

QC 20161114

Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2016-11-15Bibliographically approved

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