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Sustainable Implementation of Electrified Roads: Structural and Material Analyses
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9504-2008
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the promise of the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology for eRoad applications, the potential challenges for a successful integration of dynamic IPT technology into the physical road structure are explored extensively in this research work. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is selected for studying the structural performance of an eRoad under operational conditions. In this, an energy-based finite strain constitutive model for asphalt materials is developed and calibrated, to enable the detailed investigation of the structural response and optimization of the considered eRoad. In the context of enabling both dynamic charging and autonomous driving for future electric vehicles, the influences to the pavement (rutting) performance by the changed vehicle behaviour are investigated as well. Moreover, to study the effect on the IPT system by the integration, the potential power loss caused within eRoad pavement materials is further examined by a combined analytic and experimental analysis. The direct research goal of this Thesis is therefore to enhance the possibility of a sustainable implementation of the eRoad solutions into the real society. At the same time, it aims to demonstrate that the road structure itself is an important part of smart infrastructure systems that can either become a bottleneck or a vessel of opportunities, supporting the successful integration of these complex systems.

Abstract [sv]

Givet de förutsättningar som induktiv energiöverföring (IPT Inductive Power Transfer) har för eRoad applikationerna, utforskas möjligheterna för en framgångsrik integration av dynamisk IPT i den fysiska vägkonstruktionen på en djupgående nivå i detta forskningsarbete. Speciellt har finita elementmetoden använts för att studera det strukturella beteendet hos en e-väg under driftsmässiga förhållanden. Inom detta har en energibaserad konstitutiv model för stora töjningar utvecklats och kalibrerats för att möjliggöra detaljerade undersökningar av strukturell respons och optimering av de föreslagna e-vägarna. I samband med att möjliggöra både dynamisk laddning och autonom körning för framtida elektriska fordon, har beläggningars (spårbildnings)egenskaper studerats utifrån de laddande fordonen beteende. Dessutom för att studera effekten av IPT-systemet har den potentiella energiförlusten inom e-vägars beläggningsmaterial undersökts genom en kombinerad analytisk och experimentell undersökning. Som sådant är det direkta forskningsmålet med denna avhandling att utöka möjligheterna för en hållbar implementering av eRoad systemet inom det verkliga samhället. Samtidigt är målet att visa att vägkonstruktionen i sig själv är en viktig del av det smarta infrastruktursystemet som antingen kan bli en flaskhals eller en bärare av möjligheter, stödjande en framgångsrik implementering av dessa komplexa system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 70 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 144
Keyword [en]
Electrified road; Structural performance; Constitutive modelling; Asphalt; Dielectric loss.
Keyword [sv]
Elektrifierade vägar; Strukturellt beteende; Konstruktivt modellerande; Asfalt; Dielektrisk förlust.
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195669ISBN: 978-91-7729-193-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-195669DiVA: diva2:1044961
Public defence
2016-11-25, sal A123, Osquars backe 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161108

Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrification of Roads: Opportunities and Challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification of Roads: Opportunities and Challenges
2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 150, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Electrical Vehicle (EV) has become a potential solution for enhancing the sustainability of our road transportation, in view of the environmental impacts traditional vehicles have regarding emissions and use of fossil fuel dependence. However, the widespread use of EVs is still restrained by the energy storage technologies, and the electrification of road transportation is still in its early stages. This paper focuses on the technical aspects related to the ‘electrification of roads’ (called ‘eRoads’) infrastructure that aims to diminish the limitations for using EVs. A historical overview of the technology development towards the electrification of road transportation is presented, along with an overview of prospective technologies for implementing an eRoad charging infrastructure. Of these, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology is examined in further details. The main objective of this paper is to explore the potential knowledge gaps that need to be filled for a successful integration of IPT technology within actual road infrastructure. As such, this paper can be used as an overview of the current state-of-the-art of eRoad infrastructure and also as guidance towards future research directions in this domain.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Electrification, Inductive Power Transfer, Road infrastructure, maintenance, environment
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163546 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.067 (DOI)000356122500011 ()2-s2.0-84928160531 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
2. Thermodynamics-based finite strain viscoelastic-viscoplastic model coupled with damage for asphalt material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamics-based finite strain viscoelastic-viscoplastic model coupled with damage for asphalt material
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

A thermodynamics based thermo-viscoelastic-viscoplastic model coupled with damage using the finite strain frameworksuitable for asphalt material is proposed in this paper. A detailed procedure for model calibration and validationis presented, utilizing a set of experimental measurements such as creep-recovery, constant creep, and repeated creeprecoverytests under dierent loading conditions. The calibrated constitutive model is able to predict the sophisticatedtime- and temperature- dependent responses of asphalt material, both in tension and in compression. Moreover, a scenariocase study on permanent deformation (rutting) prediction of a practical asphalt pavement structure is presentedin this work. This paper presents the main features of this new constitutive model for asphalt: 1) A thermodynamicsbasedframework developed in the large strain context to derive the specific viscoelastic, viscoplastic and damageconstitutive equations; 2) A viscoelastic dissipation potential involving deviatoric and volumetric parts, in whichProny series representations of the Lam´e constants are used; 3) A modified Perzyna’s type viscoplastic formulationwith non-associated flow rule adopted to simulate the inelastic deformation, using a Drucker-Prager type plastic dissipationpotential; 4) A specific damage model developed for capturing the evolution disparity between tension andcompression. As such, the developed model presents a robust, fully coupled and validated constitutive framework thatincludes the major behavioral components of asphalt materials, enabling thus an optimized simulation of predictedperformance under various conditions. Further development improvements to the model in continued research eortscan be to include further environmental and physico-chemical material behavior such as ageing, healing or moistureinduced damage.

Keyword
Viscoelasticity, Viscoplasticity, Damage, Thermodynamics, Asphalt material
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195593 (URN)
Note

QCR 20161107

Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
3. Towards an understanding of the structural performance of future smart roads: a case study on eRoad
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an understanding of the structural performance of future smart roads: a case study on eRoad
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, many novel technologies are under investigations for making our road infrastructure function beyond providing mobility and embrace other features that can promote the sustainability development of road transport sector. These new roads are often referred to as multifunctional or ‘smart’ roads. Focus in this paper is given to the structural aspects of a particular smart road solution called electrified road or ‘eRoad’, which is based on enabling the inductive power transfer (IPT) technology to charge electric vehicles dynamically. Specifically, a new mechanistic–based methodology is firstly presented, using a Finite Element (FE) simulation and an advanced constitutive model for the asphalt concrete materials. Based on this, the mechanical responses of a potential eRoad structure under typical traffic loading conditions are predicted and analyzed thoroughly. The main contributions of this paper include thus: 1) Introducing a new methodology for analyzing a pavement structure purely based on mechanistic principles; 2) utilizing this methodology for the investigation of a future multifunctional road pavement structure such as an eRoad; 3) providing some practical guidance for an eRoad pavement design and the implementation into practice.

Keyword
electrified roads, asphalt materials, constitutive modelling, Finite Element simulation, pavement damage
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195591 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 605405
Note

QCR 20161114

Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2016-11-14Bibliographically approved
4. Potential Influences on Long-Term Service Performance of Road Infrastructure by Automated Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential Influences on Long-Term Service Performance of Road Infrastructure by Automated Vehicles
2016 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2550, 72-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Automated vehicles (AVs) have received great attention in recent years, and an automated road transportation sector may become reality in the next decades. Many benefits of AVs have been optimistically predicted, although some benefits may be overestimated because of a lack of thinking from a holistic point of view. From a future perspective, this study investigated the potential consequences to the long-term service performance of practical physical road infrastructure after the advent of the implementation of AVs on a large scale. Specifically, the, pavement rutting performance by the possibly changed behaviors, such as the vehicle's wheel wander, lane capacity, and traffic speed, was examined carefully with the finite element modeling approach. With the use of AVs, the decreased wheel wander and increased lane capacity could bring an accelerated rutting potential, but the increase in traffic speed would negate this effect, which was shown by the simulation results of rut depth. Therefore the influence cannot be judged as positive or negative in general; judgment actually depends much on the practical road and traffic conditions. In the future the physical roads not only might serve for the mobility of the vehicles but also might be capable of enabling other new functions. An early consideration of how to lead the future development of physical road infrastructure toward multifunctionality is emphasized.

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190585 (URN)10.3141/2550-10 (DOI)000379889700011 ()
Note

QC 20161107

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
5. A study on dielectric response of bitumen in the low-frequency range
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on dielectric response of bitumen in the low-frequency range
2015 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, Vol. 16, 153-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From the current state of literature, the dielectric property of bitumen has not been understood extensively, nor its relation with other properties such as polarity and rheology. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy measurement in a low-frequency range (10−2–106 Hz) was performed on both pure bitumen in different grades and wax-modified bitumen (WMB). From the performed tests we found the following: (i) the dielectric response of base bitumen is strongly temperature and frequency dependent, which is also highly linked to the rheology of the system. (ii) No remarkable differences in the dielectric constant (Formula presented.) among different grades of bitumen from the same crude oil source can be seen. (iii) Regular changes of dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) among the different grades of bitumen can be observed, which can be a good indicator for the linkage between the dielectric and rheological responses. In addition, it can also be perceived that the dielectric spectroscopy may have the potential to become a new approach for the multi-scale characterisation of road infrastructure materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keyword
Dielectric Spectroscopy, Bitumen, Electrical Polarization, Rheology
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163549 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2015.1029682 (DOI)000355122400010 ()2-s2.0-84929943889 (ScopusID)
Conference
6th Conference of the European Asphalt Technology Association (EATA),Stockholm, Sweden, 15-17 June 2015.
Note

QC 20150616. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
6. Dynamic application of the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems in an electrified road: Dielectric power loss due to pavement materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic application of the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems in an electrified road: Dielectric power loss due to pavement materials
2016 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

It is well-known that the high cost and limited performance of existing energy storage systems have significantly constrained the commercialization of the Electric Vehicle (EV) at large scale. In recent years, attention has been given not only to the improved energy storage systems but also to develop appropriate charging infrastructures that would allow the EVs to be powered in an easier way. Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology, also known as a near-field wireless power transfer technology, is capable of delivering electricity wirelessly with large power and high efficiency at a given gap distance. It is therefore seen as a promising solution to be applied in an electrified road (eRoad) to charge EVs dynamically, i.e. while they are moving. Various technical aspects of this contactless charging solution have been studied actively by system developers, such as the charging power, its efficiency, the optimum gap distance as well safety issues. Focus in this study is placed on the effect of pavement surfacing materials on the wireless power transfer efficiency, after the integration of the technology into the physical road structures. Specifically, a combined experimental and model prediction analysis has been carried out to investigate this potential energy loss in a quantitative way, based on which some preliminary conclusions as well as a prioritization of future focus needs are summarized in detail. This work provides thus an important beginning for understanding the pavement materials’ influence on the IPT systems that may be used for dynamic applications in an eRoad.

Keyword
Road materials, Dielectric properties, Inductive Power Transfer, Electric Vehicle
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195592 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 605405
Note

QCR 20161107

Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved

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