Shear Fracture and Delamination in Packaging Materials: A study of Experimental Methods and Simulation Techniques
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Packages are the means of preservation, distribution and convenience of use for food, medicine and other consumer products. Package opening is becoming complicated in many cases because of cutting cost in design and production of opening techniques. Introduction of new package opening technique, material or geometry for better opening experience, forces new design measurements which require a large number of prototype developments and physical testing. In order to achieve more rapid and accurate design, Finite Element Method (FEM) Simulations are widely used in packaging industries to compliment and reduce the number of physical testing.
The goal of this work is to develop the building blocks towards complete package opening simulation. The study focuses on testing and simulation of shear fracture and shear delamination of packaging materials. A modified shear test specimen was developed and optimized by finite element simulation. Test method was validated for High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Polypropylene (PP). The developed method has been accepted by international standards organization ASTM. Based on linear elastic fracture mechanics, a geometry correction factor of shear fracture toughness for the proposed specimen was derived. The study concluded that, for ease of opening, HDPE is a more favorable material for screw caps than PP. When performing the experiment with the shear specimen to find essential work of fracture, the ligament length should be varied between twice of the thickness and half of the width of the specimen ligament.
Multi-layered thin laminate of Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and aluminum (Al), also known as Al/LDPE laminate, is another key object addressed in this study. Continuum and fracture testing of individual layers provided the base information and input for numerical modeling. The propagation of an interfacial pre-crack in lamination in Al-LDPE laminate was simulated using several numerical techniques available in the commercial FEM solver ABAQUS, and it was concluded that using the combination of VCCT technique to model the interfacial delamination and coupled elasto-plastic damage constitutive for Al and LDPE substrates can describe interfacial delamination and failure due to necking. It was also concluded that the delamination mode in a pre-crack tip is influenced by the ratio of fracture energy release rate of mode I and II. To address the challenge in quantifying shear energy release rate of laminate with very thin substrate, a convenient test technique is proposed. Additionally, scanning electron microscopic study provided useful information on fractured and delaminated surfaces and provided evidence that strengthened the conclusions of this work.
The proposed test methods in this work will be crucial to measure the shear mechanical properties in bulk material and thin substrates. Laminates of Al and LDPE or similar material can be studied using the developed simulation technique which can be effectively used for decision support in early package development.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. , 110 p.
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 5
Package opening, Shear test specimen, Stress intensity factor, Finite Element simulation, Scanning electron microscopy, Polymers, Interlaminar shear delamination
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:bth-13340ISBN: 978-91-7295-333-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-13340DiVA: diva2:1044878
2016-12-09, J1650, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 37179 Karlskrona, 10:00 (English)
Tryding, Johan, Senior Material Specialist, Tetra Pak and Adjunct professor, Lund University
Kao-Walter, Sharon, ProfessorJohansson, Christian, Universitetslektor
Projectsmodel driven development and decision support project (MDS3)
List of papers