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Liquid Exfoliation of Molybdenum Disulfide for Inkjet Printing
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the discovery of graphene, substantial effort has been put toward the synthesis and production of 2D materials. Developing scalable methods for the production of high-quality exfoliated nanosheets has proved a significant challenge. To date, the most promising scalable method for achieving these materials is through the liquid-based exfoliation (LBE) of nanosheetsin solvents. Thin films of nanosheets in dispersion can be modified with additives to produce 2D inks for printed electronics using inkjet printing. This is the most promising method for the deposition of such materials onto any substrate on an industrial production level. Although well-developed metallic and organic printed electronic inks exist on the market, there is still a need to improve or develop new inks based on semiconductor materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that are stable, have good jetting conditions and deliver good printing quality.The inertness and mechanical properties of layered materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) make them ideally suited for printed electronics and solution processing. In addition,the high electron mobility of the layered semiconductors, make them a candidate to become a high-performance semiconductor material in printed electronics. Together, these features make MoS2 a simple and robust material with good semiconducting properties that is also suitable for solution coating and printing. It is also environmentally safe.The method described in this thesis could be easily employed to exfoliate many types of 2D materials in liquids. It consists of two exfoliation steps, one based on mechanical exfoliation of the bulk powder utilizing sand paper, and the other inthe liquid dispersion, using probe sonication to liquid-exfoliate the nanosheets. The dispersions, which were prepared in surfactant solution, were decanted, and the supernatant was collected and used for printing tests performed with a Dimatix inkjetprinter. The printing test shows that it is possible to use the MoS2 dispersion as a printed electronics inkjet ink and that optimization for specific printer and substrate combinations should be performed. There should also be advances in ink development, which would improve the drop formation and break-off at the inkjet printing nozzles, the ink jetting and, consequently, the printing quality.

Abstract [sv]

Sedan upptäckten av grafen har mycket arbete lagts på framställning och produktion av 2D-material. En viktig uppgift har varit att ta fram skalbara metoder för produktion av högkvalitativa  nanosheets via exfoliering. Den mest lovande skalbarametoden hittills har varit vätskebaserad exfoliering av nanosheets i lösningsmedel. Tunna filmer av nanosheets i dispersion kan anpassas med hjälp av tillsatser och användas för tillverkning av halvledare strukturer med inkjet-skrivare, vilket är den mest lovande metoden för på en industriell produktions nivå beläggaden typen av material på substrat. Även om det finns välutvecklade metalliska och organiskabläck för tryckt elektronik, så finns det fortfarande ett behov av att förbättra eller utveckla nya bläck baserade på halvledarmaterial som t.ex. TMD, som är stabila, har goda bestryknings  egenskaper och ger bra tryckkvalitet. Den inerta naturen tillsammans med de mekaniska egenskaperna som finns hosskiktade material, som t.ex. molybdendisulfid (MoS2), gör demlämpliga för flexibel elektronik och bearbetning i lösning. Dessutom gör den höga elektronmobiliteten i dessa 2D-halvledaredem till en stark kandidat som halvledarmaterial inom trycktelektronik. Det betyder att MoS2 är ett enkelt och robust material med goda halvledaregenskaper som är lämpligt för bestrykning från lösning och tryck, och är miljömässigt säker.Den metod som beskrivs här kan med fördel användas föratt exfoliera alla typer av 2D-material i lösning. Exfolieringensker i två steg; först mekanisk exfoliering av torr bulk med sandpapper, därefter används ultraljudsbehandling i lösning för att exfoliera nanosheets. De dispersioner som framställts i lösning med surfaktanter dekanterades och det övre skiktetanvändes i trycktester med en Dimatix inkjet-skrivare.Tryckprovet visar att det är möjligt att använda MoS2 -dispersion som ett inkjet-bläck och att optimering för särskildaskrivar- och substratkombinationer borde göras, såsom förbättringav bläcksammansättningen med avseende på droppbildning och break-off vid skrivarmunstycket, vilket i sin tur skulleförbättra tryckkvaliteten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2016. , 85 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 123
Keyword [en]
MoS2, Exfoliation, Inkjet Printing, 2D materials, Environmental Friendly, TMD, thin films, industrial printing, 2D inks, printed electronics, thin films carrier mobility, large-area electronics, graphene analogues, solar cells
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29181ISBN: 978-91-88025-71-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-29181DiVA: diva2:1044262
Presentation
2016-09-09, O111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
KM2Paper Solar Cells
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyKnowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exfoliated MoS2 in Water without Additives
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2016 (Swedish)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, 0154522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many solution processing methods of exfoliation of layered materials have been studied during the last few years; most of them are based on organic solvents or rely on surfactants andother funtionalization agents. Pure water should be an ideal solvent, however, it is generallybelieved, based on solubility theories that stable dispersions of water could not be achievedand systematic studies are lacking. Here we describe the use of water as a solvent and thestabilization process involved therein. We introduce an exfoliation method of molybdenumdisulfide (MoS2) in pure water at high concentration (i.e., 0.14±0.01 g L−1). This was achieved by thinning the bulk MoS2by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and dis-persing it by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication in water. We observed thin MoS2nanosheets in water characterized by TEM, AFM and SEM images. The dimensions of thenanosheets were around 200 nm, the same range obtained in organic solvents. Electropho-retic mobility measurements indicated that electrical charges may be responsible for the sta-bilization of the dispersions. A probability decay equation was proposed to compare thestability of these dispersions with the ones reported in the literature. Water can be used as asolvent to disperse nanosheets and although the stability of the dispersions may not be ashigh as in organic solvents, the present method could be employed for a number of applications where the dispersions can be produced on site and organic solvents are not desirable.

Keyword
liquid exfoliation; MoS2; solar cells; water exfoliation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27560 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0154522 (DOI)000374976200086 ()
Projects
Paper Solar Cells
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
2. Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 60, no 4, 40405-1-40405-7 p., 040405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MoS2 is a layered material which is abundant and non-toxic and has been increasingly studied during the last few years as a semiconducting alternative to graphene. While most studies have been performed on single MoS2 nanosheets, for example to demonstrate high-performance electronic transistors, more work is needed to explore the use of MoS2 in printed electronics. The importance of using MoS2 as a printed electronic material could be understood by considering the several orders higher electron mobility in MoS2, even in several nanometer thick layers, compared to the organic and other materials used today. In the few studies performed so far on printing MoS2, the developed dispersions used mainly organic solvents that might be detrimental for the environment. Here, we show an environmentally friendly liquid-based exfoliation method in water where the solution was stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. The dispersions consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets with average lateral size of about 150 nm, surface tension of 28 mN m(-1), and a shelf life of a year. Although both the concentration and viscosity was less than optimal, we were able to inkjet print the MoS2 solution on paper and on PET films, using multiple printing passes. By tuning the concentration/viscosity, this approach might lead to an environmentally friendly MoS2 ink suitable for printed electronics.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28750 (URN)10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2016.60.4.040405 (DOI)000381636200006 ()
Conference
Printing for Fabrication 2016 (JIST First Paper)
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved

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