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Municipal Landownership and Housing in Sweden: Exploring links, supply and possibilities
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1480-271X
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis comprises a number of studies, all directed at different linkages between municipal landownership and housing in Sweden. In all, the thesis consists of four papers. Of these, initial Paper I targets the emergence of the municipal landownership that still today are of crucial importance for the Swedish housing market. The main functions of the municipal landownership from the beginning of the 20th century and up until present time are retrospectively investigated and its role within Swedish housing during different times is elaborated upon. Paper II thereafter redirects focus to present time solely, and studies the management of the municipal land from particularly a housing perspective. More concretely, the disposal procedure – or land allocation practice – of the municipal land aimed for housing is investigated empirically, based on current practice in more than 25 municipalities. Paper III builds on preceding Paper II, but with a narrowed focus to a fundamental sequence of the disposal procedure – namely the developer selection. Accordingly, four different assigning methods, all derived from municipal practice, are discerned and their individual strengths and weaknesses are systematically discussed. Lastly, Paper IV attempts to illuminate an often overlooked dimension of the municipal landownership – as a potential and powerful instrument to counter polarizations between different social-groups, within the built environment. Necessary prerequisites in order to enable this are presented and an empirical study investigates whether this, somewhat concealed, potential in the municipal landownership seems to be utilized in practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2016. , 74 p.
Series
TRITA-FOB, DT-2016:9
Keyword [en]
Landownership, Muncipal landownership, Land allocation, Land development, Land policy, Housing
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195171ISBN: 978-91-85783-70-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-195171DiVA: diva2:1044229
Public defence
2016-12-09, E3, Osquars backe 14, Stockholm, 09:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161103

Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mark(ägande) och bostadsbyggande: En belysning av kommunala markens funktion 1900-2015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mark(ägande) och bostadsbyggande: En belysning av kommunala markens funktion 1900-2015
2016 (Swedish)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Mark har i alla tider utgjort en grundläggande förutsättning för bebyggelse och att så även kommer vara fallet för en lång tid framöver är odiskutabelt. För mer omfattande bebyggelse ska kunna ske idag krävs dock att marken är kopplad till såväl fysiska som juridiska och ekonomiska egenskaper. Saknas någon av dessa kommer marken normalt inte att bebyggas. Uppfylls samtliga egenskaper är det ändå inte heller säkert att marken bebyggs. Det krävs dessutom att marken har en ägare med intresse av att bebyggelsen faktiskt realiseras. Utöver marken i sig samt de fysiska, juridiska och ekonomiska egenskaperna är alltså markägandet av väsentlig betydelse. Förutom att ytterst avgöra om och när möjlig bebyggelse ska genomföras inbegriper ägandet av mark därtill potential att påverka lokalisering och utformning – d.v.s. i praktiken de juridiska och ekonomiska egenskaperna.

Att fördelarna, eller snarare möjligheterna, med att äga mark sedan länge uppmärksammats från offentligt håll speglas bl.a. av det faktum att en stor del av dagens bebyggelse – i synnerhet avseende bostäder – går att härleda till kommunal mark. Det övergripande syftet med denna rapport är beskriva bakomliggande faktorer till denna koppling – eller analogt, framväxten av dagens förhållandevis omfattande kommunala markinnehav. Detta genom att belysa den kommunala markens funktion inom bebyggelseutvecklingen från 1900-talets början fram till idag.

Framställningen bygger primärt på lagstiftning och finansiellt stöd som staten ställt till kommunernas förfogade för att leda bebyggelseutvecklingen och därtill stimulera ett planenligt genomförande. Till stora delar har de lagverktyg som utarbetats avsett begränsa privata markägares möjligheter att styra och påverka den – ur offentligt synvinkel – önskvärda bebyggelseutvecklingen. Det är således främst problem relaterade till mark i privat ägo som motiverat merparten av lagstiftningen. I föreliggande rapport diskuteras den kommunala markens funktion mot bakgrund av tre huvudsakliga problemområden:

  • Kontrollen över bebyggelsen – hur ska önskvärd bebyggelse säkerställas? 

  • Kontrollen över genomförandet av bebyggelsen – hur ska realisationen av önskvärd bebyggelse säkerställas? 

  • Kontrollen över markvärden och markvärdestegring – hur ska (negativa) effekter av höga markvärden och (oförtjänt) markvärdestegringar behandlas?

48 p.
Keyword
Markpolitik, Markägande, Kommunal mark, Bostadsbyggande
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195108 (URN)
Note

QC 20161102

Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
2. Municipal land allocations: integrating planning and selection of developers while transferring public land for housing in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal land allocations: integrating planning and selection of developers while transferring public land for housing in Sweden
2015 (English)In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 31, no 2, 257-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An essential component in all housing developments is suitable land. Besides being buildable, this implies land approved for housing in a marketable and consequently implementable location. Insufficient supply of suitable land to housing developers could affect the supply of housing. In Sweden, a lot of land appropriate for housing is owned—often since many years back—by municipalities and supplied to developers through the use of ‘land allocations’. A land allocation connects a developer and a municipality in a interdependency-based collaboration intended to jointly create an implementable development right, followed by a land transfer. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires reaching a total of 26 municipalities and 91 developers, the Swedish land allocation system is investigated; results are presented with emphasis on requirements put on developers, its interaction with the planning process and on the different methods used to select a certain developer. Additionally, the system is reviewed from a developer perspective and put in an international context. While many countries make use of public land for housing, the article shows that the Swedish land allocation system deviates in several aspects and in spite of its long history, there are undoubtedly features considered less well functioning from the developer’s point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2015
Keyword
Housing, Land allocation, Land development, Land policy, Public land, Urban development, Urban planning
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175629 (URN)10.1007/s10901-015-9457-2 (DOI)000376306800005 ()2-s2.0-84930791275 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20151027

Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
3. Disposal of municipal land aimed for housing: a critical evaluation of assigning methods applied in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disposal of municipal land aimed for housing: a critical evaluation of assigning methods applied in Sweden
2016 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden considerable amounts of land suitable for housing is owned publicly, or more specifically, by any of the 290 municipalities. A significant proportion of the land necessary for the housing market is accordingly owned, controlled and consequently publicly supplied to a highly privatized developer sector that carries out the actual development. A pivotal task in the Swedish land markets, and a natural consequence of the initial separation between land and developer, concerns the disposal phase, i.e. the allocation procedures were land initially owned by a municipality gets assigned to a specific developer. In Sweden, distribution of municipal land aimed for housing is done by so-called ‘land allocations’. While numerous scientific articles implicitly acknowledging the occurrence of local authorities abroad supplying developers with land aimed for housing, the structure of this disposal procedure seems yet to be a rather neglected subject within current housing research. The objective of present article is therefore twofold, with a first aim to present contemporary disposal practice of municipal land aimed for housing, as it is applied in Sweden. More specifically, the assignment of land allocations – i.e. the developer selection – is examined based on an empirical investigation of practices in over 30 municipalities. Secondly, this article seeks to, while acknowledging the nature of a land allocation, critically assess and intermutually rank observed methods. In short, the present article initially distinguishes between two diverging ‘assigning approaches’ – a tender approach and a direct approach. This is followed by a subdivision into four distinct ‘assigning methods’ – auctions, competitions without price, competitions with price and direct allocations.

21 p.
Keyword
Land policy, Land disposal, Land allocation, Housing
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195110 (URN)
Note

QC 20161102

Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
4. Municipal land allocations: a key for understanding tenure and social mix patterns in Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal land allocations: a key for understanding tenure and social mix patterns in Stockholm
2016 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A socially mixed population is a politically stated ambition in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. By providing a variety of tenure alternatives – i.e. rental and ownership housing – throughout all neighborhoods it is presumed this objective could be at least partially fulfilled. Since current tenure proportions display a weak balance in many neighborhoods it could consequently be assumed that governing politicians – by primarily utilizing Stockholm’s vast landownership and municipal housing developers – attempt to bridge observed gaps. Distribution of new rental- and ownership apartments in municipal land allocations should accordingly acknowledge the existing tenure composition in a neighborhood. Methodically this article focuses on all (nearly 50 000) apartments channeled through Stockholm’s land allocation system between the years of 2002 to 2012. After classification of all apartments based on tenure, location, year and developer (private or municipal) this information is merged with yearly housing stock characteristics for 128 neighborhoods. The outcome is a unique data set allowing for a statistical assessment of whether Stockholm’s tenure (and in extension social) mix ambition is reflected in practice, and moreover the role played by the municipality’s own housing developers. The present article thereto aims to highlight the crucial importance of landownership in every Swedish municipality with an aspiration to achieve or maintain a balanced tenure mix. While the findings indicate Stockholm is complying fairly well with its stated ambition, the results do reveal some contradicting signs. Looking beyond the tenure mix focus it could moreover be questioned whether Stockholm fully utilizes its (landownership) capacity to stimulate a socially mixed population – especially one capturing more than solely socio-economical aspects.

20 p.
Keyword
Housing, Housing policy, Tenure mix, Social mix, Landownership, Land allocation
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195112 (URN)
Note

QC 20161103

Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2016-11-03Bibliographically approved

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