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Spatiotemporal Variations in Snow and Soil Frost: A Review of Measurement Techniques
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
Research and Development, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI).
Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health—Institute of Groundwater Ecology.
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. Research Group, University of Oulu.
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Number of Authors: 5
2016 (English)In: Hydrology, ISSN 2306-5338, Vol. 3, no 3, 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large parts of the northern hemisphere are covered by snow and seasonal frost. Climate warming is affecting spatiotemporal variations of snow and frost, hence influencing snowmelt infiltration, aquifer recharge and river runoff patterns. Measurement difficulties have hampered progress in properly assessing how variations in snow and frost impact snowmelt infiltration. This has led to contradicting findings. Some studies indicate that groundwater recharge response is scale dependent. It is thus important to measure snow and soil frost properties with temporal and spatial scales appropriate to improve infiltration process knowledge. The main aim with this paper is therefore to review ground based methods to measure snow properties (depth, density, water equivalent, wetness, and layering) and soil frost properties (depth, water and ice content, permeability, and distance to groundwater) and to make recommendations for process studies aiming to improve knowledge regarding infiltration in regions with seasonal frost. Ground-based radar (GBR) comes in many different combinations and can, depending on design, be used to assess both spatial and temporal variations in snow and frost so combinations of GBR and tracer techniques can be recommended and new promising methods (auocostics and self potential) are evolving, but the study design must be adapted to the scales, the aims and the resources of the study. View Full-Text

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 3, no 3, 28
Research subject
Applied Geology
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URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60042DOI: 10.3390/hydrology3030028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-60042DiVA: diva2:1042005
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved

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