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Protecting forests through partnerships
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the potential of private-public partnerships (PPPs) to involve private forest owners in formal forest protection. These partnerships have been widely advocated as means to engage actors from diverse sectors in collaborative new relationships, formed in a step-wise manner, to improve management of resources that combine public and private goods. Nature Conservation Agreements (NCAs) are the first kind of PPPs to be used in Swedish forest protection. NCAs were introduced in 1993 and are agreements based in civil law between a private forest owner and the Swedish Forest Agency or County Administrative Board. Although NCAs were introduced to promote interest in nature conservation among forest owners, the response has been rather weak. Thus, in 2010 the government launched a pilot project called the Komet program, in which private forest owners in selected pilot areas initiated protective measures. Although criticized by environmental non-governmental organizations, the government decided after the pilot project terminated in 2014 to implement the Komet program’s working methods nationwide. In this thesis, PPPs’ potential to contribute to forest protection is analyzed by applying the “Ladder of Partnership Activity” framework, developed to study global PPPs, with appropriate modifications for a national context. The framework incorporates, in a stepwise manner, context, the actors’ motives relating to trust-building, the creation of collaborative advantages in the partnering process and the institutionalization of PPPs. The thesis contributes to an empirical understanding of top-down and bottom-up PPP processes. It is based on studies in which qualitative research methods were applied to examine selected cases presented in four papers, designated Papers I-IV. The main sources of information are qualitative interviews with involved forest actors and policy documents they have produced. Papers I and II focus particularly on trust-building and the partnering process as perceived by involved forest actors, while Papers III and IV address the institutionalization of PPPs and their requirements to change the political order of forest protection in accordance with governmental objectives. The results show that willingness to adopt PPPs is dependent on past experience of collaborative efforts. They also show there is substantial discretion in involved actors’ interpretation of prescribed guidelines, and their motives may vary substantially. However, as long as they share the same ultimate objective, i.e. to protect forests, PPPs may still be successfully established. A major potential problem is that public officials tend to prioritize protection of biodiversity, while forest owners want to protect social values and unproductive (“useless”) forests. Thus, shared motives are essential to establish trust and initiate collaborative efforts. The voluntary element of initiatives supported by the Komet program appears to be essential for deliberation. PPPs need to be implemented nationwide to be institutionalized. However, the Swedish government has not provided sufficient resources and leadership capacity to enable PPPs to play their envisaged role in its forest governance system. If the government wants to adopt bottom-up approaches, it needs to provide sufficient resources so that the partnerships does not compete with other formal instruments and protection arrangements. Furthermore, coordination within and between sectors needs to be improved to clarify the purpose of the policy recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 71 p.
Series
Statsvetenskapliga institutionens skriftserie, ISSN 0349-0831 ; 2016:3
Keyword [en]
forests, formal protection, forest owners, public-private partnerships, Nature Conservation Agreements, the Komet program, forest governance, Sweden
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127072ISBN: 978-91-7601-578-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127072DiVA: diva2:1040585
Public defence
2016-11-25, Hörsal C, Lindellhallen, Biblioteksgränd 10, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-04 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Shared responsibility for forest protection?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared responsibility for forest protection?
2015 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, Vol. 50, 220-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Worldwide, there is growing reliance in forest politics on public-private partnerships (PPPs) as a means for forest-environmental protection. In Sweden, such partnership characterizes the approach in nature conservation agreements (NCAs) in the forest policy from 1993 and onwards. NCAs are negotiated between the County Administrative Board/the Forest Agency and a landowner, where the landowner agrees to, with some compensation, provide a public service in terms of protecting biodiversity. However, assessments of the implementation of NCAs show rather inefficient implementation of set goals in general, even if there are great regional variations. This paper explores factors affecting the establishment of PPPs in two neighboring counties distinguished by high and low level of goal achievement of NCAs respectively. The analysis focuses on the process among the landowners and responsible authorities, their incentives for collaboration, and the potential for developing shared motives. The results suggest that in particular the discretionary power of authorities influences not only the willingness to participate, but also the institutional ability to develop sustainable relationships which largely explains why landowners in some counties are keener to engage in NCAs.

Keyword
Public-private partnership, Forest protection, Nature conservation agreements, Trust, Forest policy, scretionary power
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-99775 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2014.10.003 (DOI)000347763100024 ()
Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-12 Last updated: 2016-10-28Bibliographically approved
2. Public-private partnerships in forest protection in Sweden: problems and prospects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public-private partnerships in forest protection in Sweden: problems and prospects
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127070 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2016-10-28
3. Exploring the Role of Public–Private Partnerships in Forest Protection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Role of Public–Private Partnerships in Forest Protection
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 5, 496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2010, the Swedish government established the Komet program—a pilot forest protection project that was initially implemented in five land areas. The Komet program was intended to complement existing formal protection measures by establishing partnerships with forest owners and industries to encourage these actors to take a greater interest in contributing to forest conservation efforts and Nature Conservation Agreements. Despite mixed results, the government subsequently chose to implement these partnerships nationwide, thereby institutionalizing the Komet program and making it into a regular component of forest management policy. This study examines how the program developed and became institutionalized. The theoretical role of public–private partnerships and their capacity to deliver collective goods are discussed. The empirical material primarily consists of interviews with key stakeholders from the pilot period and the present reference group. The results highlight the need to carefully consider past collaborative experiences together with existing motives relating to the role of partnerships in forest protection in order to achieve successful institutionalization. This will increase the government’s capacity to create the conditions for institutionalization and may facilitate the development of external interactions in partnerships, leading to the incorporation of various protection arrangements.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121345 (URN)10.3390/su8050496 (DOI)000377983800090 ()
Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-31 Last updated: 2016-10-28Bibliographically approved
4. Partnerships potential for protecting forests social values
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partnerships potential for protecting forests social values
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127071 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2016-11-16

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