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Added value from biomass by broader utilization of fuels and CHP plants
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9919-1040
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present work, where additional value-creating processes in existing combined heat and power (CHP) structures have been examined, is motivated by a political- and consumer-driven strive towards a bioeconomy and a stagnation for the existing business models in large parts of the CHP sector.

The research is based on cases where the integration of flash pyrolysis for co-production of bio-oil, co-gasification for production of fuel gas and synthetic biofuels as well as leaching of extractable fuel components in existing CHP plants have been simulated. In particular, this work has focused on the CHP plants that utilize boilers of fluidized bed (FB) type, where the concept of coupling a separate FB reactor to the FB of the boiler forms an important basis for the analyses. In such dual fluidized bed (DFB) technology, heat is transferred from the boiler to the new rector that is operating with other fluidization media than air, thereby enabling other thermochemical processes than combustion to take place. The result of this work shows that broader operations at existing CHP plants have the potential to enable production of significant volumes of chemicals and/or fuels with high efficiency, while maintaining heat supply to external customers.

Based on the insight that the technical preconditions for a broader operation are favourable, the motivation and ability among the incumbents in the Swedish CHP sector to participate in a transition of their operation towards a biorefinery was examined. The result of this assessment showed that the incumbents believe that a broader operation can create significant values for their own operations, the society and the environment, but that they lack both a strong motivation as well as important abilities to move into the new technological fields.

If the concepts of broader production are widely implemented in the Swedish FB based CHP sector, this can substantially contribute in the transition towards a bioeconomy.

Abstract [en]

Bioeconomy has been identified to hold a great potential for reducing fossil fuel dependence and for maintaining and creating economic growth. Large parts of the combined heat and power (CHP) sector, which successfully have contributed in the transition towards a fossil free society, are at present facing stagnation. District heating actors are facing challenges due to warmer climate, better insulated buildings and competition from heat pumps. The forest industry where CHP plants supplies processes with heat is facing structural changes foremost in the graphic segments.

The emerging bioeconomy and the stagnation for the existing business models in large parts of the CHP sector form the background for the examination of additional value-creating processes in the existing CHP structure presented in this thesis. The technical viability for integration of fast pyrolysis, gasification and leaching with existing CHP plants has been analysed as well as the motivation and ability of the CHP incumbents to participate in a transition towards the bioeconomy by developing their plants to biorefineries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2016:44
Keyword [en]
biofuels, bioeconomy, pyrolysis, gasification, leaching
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46906ISBN: 978-91-7063-727-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-46906DiVA: diva2:1040047
Public defence
2016-12-08, 9C203 Nyquistsalen, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Co-production of pyrolysis oil in district heating plants: Systems analysis of dual fluidized-bed pyrolysis with sequential vapor condensation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-production of pyrolysis oil in district heating plants: Systems analysis of dual fluidized-bed pyrolysis with sequential vapor condensation
2013 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 9, 5313-5319 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flash pyrolysis of biomass yields a liquid applicable as a fuel oil substitute and as a basis for production of chemicals and fuels. Biomass, being a renewable resource, is foreseen to be in increasing demand. An increased usage may lead to scarcity of biomass and emphasizes the need for high-efficiency conversion processes. In this study, the efficiency and capacity aspects of an integration of pyrolysis oil production with a district heating plant by means of dual fluidized-bed technology has been modeled. Further, fractional condensation of the pyrolysis vapors has been applied, enabling part of the condensation energy to be recovered. The concept shows potential for significant pyrolysis oil production while keeping the delivered power and heat constant. The use of excess heat from the pyrolysis production in the district heating net results in a 10% higher overall efficiency than production without heat supply to the district heating net.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-31171 (URN)10.1021/ef401143v (DOI)000330100000031 ()
Available from: 2014-02-04 Created: 2014-02-04 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
2. Addition/Correction: Co-production of pyrolysis oil in district heating plants: Systems analysis of dual fluidized-bed pyrolysis with sequential vapor condensation (Energy and Fuels (2013) 27:9 (5313?5319) DOI: 10.1021/ef401143v)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addition/Correction: Co-production of pyrolysis oil in district heating plants: Systems analysis of dual fluidized-bed pyrolysis with sequential vapor condensation (Energy and Fuels (2013) 27:9 (5313?5319) DOI: 10.1021/ef401143v)
2013 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 10, 6333-6333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-31170 (URN)10.1021/ef401966m (DOI)000326126700085 ()
Available from: 2014-02-04 Created: 2014-02-04 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
3. Syngas as an Additional Energy Carrier in the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Mill-Wide System Analysis of a Combined Drying Concept, Utilizing On-Site Generated Gas and Steam
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syngas as an Additional Energy Carrier in the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Mill-Wide System Analysis of a Combined Drying Concept, Utilizing On-Site Generated Gas and Steam
2014 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 9, 5841-5848 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of thermal energy are required for different unit operations in the pulp and paper industry. Typically, this energy is distributed by means of steam. In this study, introduction of in-situ-generated syngas as an energy carrier in parallel to the predominant steam has been investigated. The examined systems use dual fluidized-bed gasification integrated with a solid fuel boiler of a paper mill together with impingement drying in combination with cylinder drying, a concept enabling higher specific drying rates. The studied systems exhibit reduced overall energy use when compared to the present situation with conventional steam-heated cylinder drying. Cold tar cleaning by condensation/absorption and firing of the syngas in a gas turbine followed by utilization of the exhaust gases for drying are interesting options because this results in reduced biomass consumption with maintained power production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33956 (URN)10.1021/ef5010144 (DOI)000342118200030 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation and analysis of environmentally sustainable methodologies for extraction of betulin from birch bark with a focus on industrial feasibility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and analysis of environmentally sustainable methodologies for extraction of betulin from birch bark with a focus on industrial feasibility
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 18, no 2, 516-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Betulin from birch bark was extracted using two principally different extraction methodologies - classical Reflux Boiling (RB) and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The extraction methods were analyzed based on both recovery and purity as well as for RB industrial feasibility. The purity and recovery for the different extraction methods were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with three different detection principles: Diode Array Detection (DAD), Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Charged Aerosol Detection (CAD). The chromatographic purity was determined by all detections whereas the DAD was used also for complementary gravimetric calculations of the purity of the extracts. The MS detection (in MS and MS/MS modes) was mainly used to characterize the impurities. Two steps to increase the purity of RB extracts were evaluated - pre-boiling the bark in water and precipitation by adding water to the extract. Finally, the methods were compared in terms of amounts of betulin produced and solvent consumed. The RB method including a precipitation step produced the highest purity of betulin. However, results indicate that PLE using three cycles with the precipitation step gives similar purities as for RB. The PLE method produced up to 1.6 times higher amount of extract compared to the RB method. However, the solvent consumption (liter solvent per gram product) for PLE was around 4.5 times higher as compared to the classical RB. PLE performed with only one extraction cycle gave results more similar to RB with 1.2 times higher yield and 1.4 times higher solvent consumption. The RB process was investigated on an industrial scale using a model approach and several important key-factors could be identified. The most energy demanding step was the recycling of extraction solvent which motivates that solvent consumption should be kept low and calculations show a great putative energy reduction by decreasing the ethanol concentration used in the RB process to lower than 90%.

Keyword
OUTER BARK; ACID; SOLVENT; CELLS
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41179 (URN)10.1039/c5gc00519a (DOI)000369534500024 ()
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
5. Co-production of gasification based biofuels in existing combined heat and power plants - Analysis of production capacity and integration potential
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-production of gasification based biofuels in existing combined heat and power plants - Analysis of production capacity and integration potential
2016 (English)In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 111, no September, 830-840 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid fuel fired fluidized bed (FB) boilers are common in combined heat and power (CHP) plants in district heating- and process industry. In this study, utilization of such FB boilers for production of syngas in dual fluidized bed gasifiers and subsequent catalytic biofuel production to substitute natural gas (SNG), methanol (MeOH) and Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) has been examined. Based on the hypothesis that waste-heat and tail gas from the biofuel processes can be utilized in the CHP plant, process configurations aiming for operationally robustness and low investment cost rather than maximum stand-alone efficiency have been explored and implemented in actual industrial cases and over the full operating range of the boilers. The results of the study show that significant improvements of overall efficiency can be achieved by integration of the biofuel processes in the CHP plants and that a relatively high biofuel production capacity can be achieved. SNG showed the highest obtainable efficiency and production capacity of the studied biofuels, whereas the FT process showed largest increase in terms of efficiency when integrated in the CHP plant, compared to its stand-alone efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Biomass gasification, Biofuels, Combined heat and power, Process integration
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46904 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.027 (DOI)000384776900069 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. MANUSCRIPT: The Role of Incumbents in the Transition towards a Bioeconomy: Motivation and Abilities of the Combined Heat and Power Sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MANUSCRIPT: The Role of Incumbents in the Transition towards a Bioeconomy: Motivation and Abilities of the Combined Heat and Power Sector
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46905 (URN)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved

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