Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Three-dimensional structured carbon foam: synthesis and applications
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University. (Jyri-Pekka Mikkola)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recently, due to the unique properties and structures such as large geometric surface area, electrical conductivity and light weight, 3D structured carbon materials have been attracting extensive attention from scientists. Moreover, the materials, which can provide well-defined pathways for reactants to easily access active sites, are extremely useful for energy conversion as well as environmental and catalysis applications. To date, many precursors have been used for fabrication of 3D structured carbon materials including pitch, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and polymer foams.

This thesis, as shown in the thesis title, focus on two main aspects: the study of the characteristics of melamine based carbon foam synthesized at different conditions and their applications. In paper I, it was revealed that through a simple, one-step pyrolysis process, flexible carbon foam synthesized from melamine foam (BasotectÒ, BASF) was obtained. Additionally, through a pyrolysis-activation process, activated carbon foam which possesses hydrophilic nature and high surface area was successfully synthesized. The characteristics of carbon foam such as the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and surface chemistry were studied. It was shown that carbon foam could be successfully used as an absorbent in environmental applications e.g. removing of spill oil from water (paper I) or as support for heterogeneous catalysts, which in turn was used not only in gas phase reactions (paper I and IV) but also in an aqueous phase reaction (paper II). Importantly, when combined with a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (SRBR) (paper II), the monolithic carbon foam/SRBR system brought more advantages than using the foam alone. Additionally, the work in paper III showed the potential of carbon foam in an energy conversion application as anode electrode substrate in alkaline water electrolysis. In summary, the versatility of the carbon foam has been proven through abovementioned lab scale studies and due to the simple, scalable and cost effective pyrolysis and activation processes used for the production, it has potential to be used in large-scale applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2016. , 54 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbon foam, melamine foam, absorbent, water purification, heterogeneous catalyst, catalyst support, SpinChem®, rotating bed reactor, water electrolysis, energy conversion
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126852ISBN: 978-91-7601-574-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-126852DiVA: diva2:1039900
Public defence
2016-11-14, KB.E3.01, KBC-huset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2016-10-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Industrially benign super-compressible piezoresistive carbon foams with predefined wetting properties: from environmental to electrical applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrially benign super-compressible piezoresistive carbon foams with predefined wetting properties: from environmental to electrical applications
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, 6933Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work electrically conductive, flexible, lightweight carbon sponge materials derived from open-pore structure melamine foams are studied and explored. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface properties - depending on the chosen treatment conditions - allow the separation and storage of liquid chemical compounds. Activation of the carbonaceous structures substantially increases the specific surface area from ,4 m2 g21 to ,345 m2 g21 , while retaining the original three-dimensional, open-pore structure suitable for hosting, for example, Ni catalyst nanoparticles. In turn the structure is rendered suitable for hydrogenating acetone to 2-propanol and methyl isobutyl ketone as well for growing hierarchical carbon nanotube structures used as electric double-layer capacitor electrodes with specific capacitance of ,40 F/g. Mechanical stress-strain analysis indicates the materials are super-compressible (.70% volume reduction) and viscoelastic with excellent damping behavior (loss of 0.69 6 0.07), while piezoresistive measurements show very high gauge factors (from ,20 to 50) over a large range of deformations. The cost-effective, robust and scalable synthesis - in conjunction with their fascinating multifunctional utility - makes the demonstrated carbon foams remarkable competitors with other three-dimensional carbon materials typically based on pyrolyzed biopolymers or on covalently bonded graphene and carbon nanotube frameworks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2014
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100331 (URN)10.1038/srep06933 (DOI)000344315200005 ()
Available from: 2015-03-01 Created: 2015-03-01 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
2. Catalytic Hydrogenation of d-Xylose Over Ru Decorated Carbon Foam Catalyst in a SpinChem® Rotating Bed Reactor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic Hydrogenation of d-Xylose Over Ru Decorated Carbon Foam Catalyst in a SpinChem® Rotating Bed Reactor
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 59, no 13-14, 1165-1177 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work the activity of ruthenium decorated carbon foam (Ru/CF) catalyst was studied in three phase hydrogenation reaction of d-xylose to d-xylitol. The developed catalyst was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Kinetic measurements were carried out in a laboratory scale pressurized reactor (Parr®) assisted by SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (SRBR), at pre-defined conditions (40–60 bar H2 and 100–120 °C). The study on the influence of reaction conditions showed that the conversion rate and selectivity of hydrogenation reaction of d-xylose was significantly affected by temperature. These results have been proved by a competitive kinetics model which was found to describe the behavior of the novel system (Ru/CF catalyst used together with the SRBR) very well. Besides, it was revealed that the catalytic activity as well as the stability of our Ru/CF-SRBR is comparable with the commercial ruthenium decorated carbon catalyst (Ru/AC) under identical reaction conditions. Moreover, all steps from catalyst preparation and catalyst recycling as well as catalytic testing can be performed in an easy, fast and elegant manner without any loss of materials. Briefly, the developed Ru/CF catalyst used together with the SRBR could be used an excellent alternative for the conventional Raney nickel catalyst in a slurry batch reactor and offers an attractive concept with obvious industrial applicability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
Keyword
d-xylose, d-xylitol, Ruthenium, Carbon foam, SpinChem, Rotating bed reactor
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122090 (URN)10.1007/s11244-016-0637-4 (DOI)000381158900010 ()
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Robust hierarchical 3D carbon foam electrode for efficient water electrolysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust hierarchical 3D carbon foam electrode for efficient water electrolysis
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127042 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2016-10-26
4. Gas phase synthesis of isopropyl chloride from isopropanol and HCl over alumina and flexible 3-D carbon foam supported catalysts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas phase synthesis of isopropyl chloride from isopropanol and HCl over alumina and flexible 3-D carbon foam supported catalysts
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127043 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2016-10-26

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1920 kB)18 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1920 kBChecksum SHA-512
72d445c218e74bf2f6a03bdc2f42332d942e87885f747f83b6c557e22d7139097d7ae1e7bde6babde2f4f1d2e8d3ac084431ae11abbeedd7d8fbbfdf79e86c62
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
spikblad(189 kB)15 downloads
File information
File name SPIKBLAD01.pdfFile size 189 kBChecksum SHA-512
72d0ac010e85b9008b51874d411e201212538637520f73ca27d4dde488d8277237bb9a06e650497e13da4d73058916b6db5bff4bc254dfce09639fd6b3692fcb
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Pham, Ngoc Tung
By organisation
Department of Chemistry
Materials Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 18 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 216 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link