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Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis deals with several aspects of monitoring of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in biological matrices, for example choice of sample, sampling design, and statistical treatment of data both for temporal and spatial trends and for compliance towards a set target value. The efficiency has been evaluated through statistical power analyses. Contaminant data from more than 4 decades from the Swedish National Monitoring Programs for monitoring of contaminants in biota (marine, freshwater and human health), has been quantitatively evaluated both temporally and spatially and for compliance. The aim was also to evaluate the suitability of different matrices, i.e. herring (Clupea harengus), guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), pike (Esox lucius), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and human milk, for monitoring of POPs with the overall aim to improve the assessment within monitoring programs.

The results show that variation can be reduced by using pooled samples including more specimens but fewer chemical analyses, which in turn generate a higher statistical power to a lower cost, at least in cases where the cost of collection and sampling is considerably lower than the cost of chemical analysis. However, there are also a number of advantages using individual samples, such as information of sample variance and maximum value, which allows the choice of an appropriate central measure and direct adjustment of confounding factors.

Generally, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have decreased both in marine and freshwater biota but concentrations are still higher in the Baltic compared to e.g. the North Sea. The levels of dioxinlike-PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have decreased in human milk over time, but not to the same extent in fish and guillemot egg from the Baltic and the freshwater environment. This may be explained by the dietary advice developed by the Swedish Food Administration with the goal that girls, reproductive aged, and pregnant women should eat less food containing high levels of PCDD/Fs. Thus the levels in milk could continue to decrease at the same rate although the temporal trend in the environment has slowed down or leveled out.

The most essential regarding the choice of species and matrices for contaminant monitoring, is that the species and organ fit the purpose of the monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2016. , 83 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental monitoring, temporal trends, power analysis, sampling strategy, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, fish, bird eggs, blue mussels, human milk
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134769ISBN: 978-91-7649-527-8ISBN: 978-91-7649-528-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-134769DiVA: diva2:1038437
Public defence
2016-12-09, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Consequences of using pooled versus individual samples for designing environmental monitoring sampling strategies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences of using pooled versus individual samples for designing environmental monitoring sampling strategies
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2014 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, 177-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Choosing an appropriate sampling strategy for chemical analysis within environmental monitoring includes the important decision of whether to sample and store individual or pooled samples. This choice impacts on future analyses from Environmental Specimen Bank samples. A number of advantages exist to support using either individual or pooled samples for temporal trend studies. However, it is important to know the total and analytical variance to be able to design the best sampling strategy. Statistical power in temporal or spatial studies is determined by the random/unexplained sample variation. The relationship between chemical analytical error and other sources of variation, as well as the cost for collection, preparation of samples and chemical analysis, will determine the number of individuals in each pool, and the number of pools that should be analysed to achieve high cost efficiency and good statistical power. Various scenarios of different numbers of individual samples, different numbers of pooled samples containing various numbers of individual specimens, the relationships between chemical analytical error and other sources of sample variance, have been compared by simulating random sampling from computer generated populations using realistic measures of variation from ongoing monitoring activities. These results offer guidance in the design of a cost-efficient, statistically sound sampling strategy.

Keyword
Analytical error, Biological variation, Environmental monitoring, Pooled samples, Specimen banking, Statistical power
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98263 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.096 (DOI)000327685300025 ()
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved
2. Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-2012
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-2012
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2014 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, 45-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been monitored in perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in reference lakes since the late 1960s. Temporal trends and spatial patterns are currently monitored in nine and 32 lakes, respectively. Overall, PCB concentrations are decreasing. However, this is not consistent for all congeners across all lakes and species. Perch has comparatively low PCB concentrations relative to suggested target levels, but individual congener concentrations in some lakes are concerningly high. No temporal trend is seen for CB-118 and CB-153 in perch, but significant decreasing trends exist for Arctic char and pike, for which monitoring started earlier than for perch. The lower/higher chlorinated congener ratio decreased over time in most lakes, indicating fewer new emissions. CB-118 and CB-153 concentrations in perch show spatial gradients across Sweden, with higher concentrations found near urban/industrial areas.

Keyword
Fish, PCBs, Monitoring, Freshwater, Sweden, Trends
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-111414 (URN)10.1007/s13280-014-0561-4 (DOI)000345292300005 ()
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. Temporal and spatial trends of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB in Swedish marine biota 1969-2012
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal and spatial trends of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB in Swedish marine biota 1969-2012
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2015 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 484-497 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the 1960s, the Baltic Sea was severely polluted by organic contaminants such as PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and DDTs. Elevated concentrations caused severe adverse effects in Baltic biota. Since then, these substances have been monitored temporally and spatially in Baltic biota, primarily in herring (Clupea harengus) and in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, but also in cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). These chemicals were banned in Sweden in the late 1970s/early 1980s. Since the start of monitoring, overall significant decreases of about 70-90 % have been observed. However, concentrations are still higher in the Baltic Sea than in, for example, the North Sea. CB-118 and DDE exceed the suggested target concentrations (24 lg kg(-1) lipid weight and 5 lg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively) at certain sites in some of the monitored species, showing that concentrations may still be too high to protect the most sensitive organisms.

Keyword
Ecotoxicology, Baltic Sea biota, POPs, Monitoring
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122518 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0673-5 (DOI)000362290800015 ()
Available from: 2015-11-04 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved
4. Comparing temporal trends of organochlorines in guil-lemot eggs and Baltic herring: Advantages and disadvantages for se-lecting sentinel species for environmental monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing temporal trends of organochlorines in guil-lemot eggs and Baltic herring: Advantages and disadvantages for se-lecting sentinel species for environmental monitoring
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2014 (English)In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 100, 38-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is aimed at addressing the chemical status and quality of the marine environment. One of the main goals is to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the marine environment. Environmental monitoring of biota e.g., Baltic herring and guillemot eggs, is conducted annually in Sweden to follow temporal changes in environmental contaminants. To determine the suitability of guillemot eggs as a sentinel species for investigating GES, we compared temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these two species from single sampling sites within Sweden.

Lipid content from guillemot eggs was consistently high and stable (yearly mean for >40 years, ∼12%) compared to that of herring (yearly mean for >20 years, ∼3%). A significant decreasing trend of ΣPCDD/F in TEQ WHO1998 was observed in guillemot eggs, but no trend was seen in herring. CB118 significantly decreased in both species, but in the last 10 years this decrease was not significant in herring. A number of advantages, such as high lipid content in the egg and a low coefficient of variation make guillemot suitable as a sentinel species. The advantages and disadvantages of using either guillemot eggs or Baltic herring are compared.

Keyword
Baltic Sea, Clupea harengus, Dioxins, Ecotoxicology, Guillemot eggs, Herring, Pollution monitoring, Seabirds, Sentinel species, Uria aalge
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134690 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.02.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved
5. Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-2011
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-2011
2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, 224-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

Keyword
Mothers milk, Dioxin, PCDD, PCDF, dioxin-like PCB, Time series
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98318 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.019 (DOI)000327566900026 ()
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved

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