An enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that governs vulnerability to suicidal behavior by regulating excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation
2016 (English)In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 6, no e865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in depression and suicidal behavior. The kynurenine pathway is involved in neuroinflammation and regulates glutamate neurotransmission. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of suicidal patients, levels of inflammatory cytokines and the kynurenine metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist, are increased. The enzyme amino-beta-carboxymuconate-semialdehyde-decarboxylase (ACMSD) limits QUIN formation by competitive production of the neuroprotective metabolite picolinic acid (PIC). Therefore, decreased ACMSD activity can lead to excess QUIN. We tested the hypothesis that deficient ACMSD activity underlies suicidal behavior. We measured PIC and QUIN in CSF and plasma samples from 137 patients exhibiting suicidal behavior and 71 healthy controls. We used DSM-IV and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Suicide Assessment Scale to assess behavioral changes. Finally, we genotyped ACMSD tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 77 of the patients and 150 population-based controls. Suicide attempters had reduced PIC and a decreased PIC/QUIN ratio in both CSF (Pamp;lt;0.001) and blood (P=0.001 and Pamp;lt;0.01, respectively). The reductions of PIC in CSF were sustained over 2 years after the suicide attempt based on repeated measures. The minor C allele of the ACMSD SNP rs2121337 was more prevalent in suicide attempters and associated with increased CSF QUIN. Taken together, our data suggest that increased QUIN levels may result from reduced activity of ACMSD in suicidal subjects. We conclude that measures of kynurenine metabolites can be explored as biomarkers of suicide risk, and that ACMSD is a potential therapeutic target in suicidal behavior.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP , 2016. Vol. 6, no e865
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132077DOI: 10.1038/tp.2016.133ISI: 000383421200004PubMedID: 27483383OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-132077DiVA: diva2:1038408
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [2009-4284, 2011-4787, 2002-5297, 2008-2922, 2009-7052, 2013-2838]; Province of Scania clinical state grants; Swedish Research Council [K2014-62X-14647-12-51]; Swedish Federal Government [ALF 20130032]; NIH [1R01MH104622-01]; American Foundation for Suicide Prevention [DIG 1-162-12]; Michigan State University; Van Andel Research Institute; Australian Research Council; National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; Rocky Mountain MIRECC; Merit Review CSRD grant [1 I01 CX001310- 01A1]; Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/ UMD [FDU.001418]2016-10-182016-10-172016-11-11