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Designing for Online Youth Counselling: Empowerment through Design and Participation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. (CLIP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5627-2158
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

More and more people are using the internet to access various societal functions. In recent years, municipalities and private enterprises have increasingly begun to explore and develop internet-based services to support public health in general and to disseminate health information in particular. This compilation thesis consists of four articles that explore and provide different perspectives on the design and implementation of new online youth counselling services for public organisations and social services, working with counselling and health information for young people. Ethnographic methods, and materials from two empirical settings, have been used to investigate how aspects of design and participation can serve to empower both potential young users and counsellors as stakeholders in the design projects. An important secondary focus is how mechanisms of empowerment play out in the design of online counselling services targeting young people. The notion of empowerment is addressed in terms of empowerment through design, focusing on normative expectations regarding young people as users of online youth counselling, as well as how to work with norms and norm-critical perspectives in the design and development of user interfaces. Another aspect of empowerment concerns participation, here seeking an increased understanding of the processes, practices and shifting roles involved in engaging professionals and young users as participants in a design project. In order to address these interrelated areas of inquiry, an eclectic theoretical and methodological approach has been used to study design in practice. An ethnomethodological approach unpacks how the participants relate to and reflect upon the design projects under study, highlighting aspects of empowerment and user agency. In addition, a sociocultural perspective on communities of practice and participation is used to increase the understanding of what it means to be a participant in participatory design projects. The findings show how embedded social norms and values have implications for users’ identities as presented in the digital design of online youth counselling services. The findings also reveal ways in which user empowerment is facilitated but also restricted by the design of youth counselling e-services, including not only the designed multimodal features of such services, but also the norms that guide usage. The studies also address the outcomes of technological change and the implementation of sociotechnical systems and services for the professionals involved in design projects. Here the studies provide knowledge about the forms of practical reasoning the counsellors engage in when anticipating work-related issues associated with the new technology and how they might deal with potential challenges. Finally, the findings show how participation in a design project may enable the development of new forms of communities of practice in which the participants and their roles and participation status change as the organisation changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 140 p.
Series
Uppsala Studies in Education, ISSN 0347-1314 ; 140
Keyword [en]
Empowerment, Participation, Design practice, Participatory design projects, Norm-critical design, Norms in design, Ethnography, Ethnomethodology, Online youth counselling
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education; Pathology; Pathology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305367ISBN: 978-91-554-9725-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-305367DiVA: diva2:1037495
Public defence
2016-12-02, Eva Netzelius, 10:K102, von Kraemers Allé 1A, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-10-15 Last updated: 2016-11-16
List of papers
1. Reflections on norm-critical design efforts in online youth counselling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflections on norm-critical design efforts in online youth counselling
2012 (English)In: NordiCHI 2012: Making Sense Through Design: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2012, 438-447 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We explore social norms embedded in interaction design, how different identity roles are made relevant during a specific design project and how norm-critical efforts are made by different actors during this design process. We have studied the development of the Swedish National Youth Counselling site to illustrate how interaction design may construct meaning, norms and values in design. We present an ethnographic study, the development of the Love Animation. Examples are shown in which interaction design unintentionally discourages the purpose of the intended message which suggests that there is a need for further understanding of how the content and the interaction design relates to each other. Using Science and Technology theories, the research join the emergent critical tradition in HCI and a critical perspective on technology as a coconstructing agent is applied.

Keyword
Healthcare, Interaction design, Norm-critical design efforts, Science and technology studies, Values, Youth counselling, Design effort, Animation, Health care, Human computer interaction, Technology, Design
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-195442 (URN)10.1145/2399016.2399083 (DOI)978-1-4503-1482-4 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Making Sense Through Design, NordiCHI 2012, 14 October 2012 through 17 October 2012, Copenhagen
Available from: 2013-02-26 Created: 2013-02-25 Last updated: 2016-10-16
2. Click-guides and Panic buttons: Designed possibilities for youth agency and user empowerment in online youth counselling services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Click-guides and Panic buttons: Designed possibilities for youth agency and user empowerment in online youth counselling services
2016 (English)In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study examines how possibilities for agency are designed into online youth counselling services, as well as how such possibilities are addressed by young prospective users during the design of the services. The data are drawn both from the design of a national website for youth clinics in Sweden and from a design project developing e-services for local youth clinics in a Swedish municipality. The agency of young users is here treated as a key concern for understanding how user empowerment is accomplished through the design of websites and e-services. Using combined research materials (i.e. two websites and focus group meetings), this study demonstrates how design features may both facilitate and restrict young people’s involvement and control over sensitive and private issues. In addition, we demonstrate how the designed possibilities for empowerment may allow young users to critically approach and effectively use such services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage publications: Sage publications, 2016
Keyword
digital control, empowerment, focus group meetings, interaction design, online youth counselling services, privacy, website analysis, youth agency
National Category
Social Sciences Pedagogy Media and Communications
Research subject
Education; Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293640 (URN)10.1177/0907568216656761 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-14 Created: 2016-05-14 Last updated: 2016-10-18
3. Analogies in interaction: Practical reasoning and participatory design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analogies in interaction: Practical reasoning and participatory design
2016 (English)In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 36, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examines a set of discussions among professional counselors in the area of youth counseling, as they participate in the development and design of an online video-mediated communication platform. With an overarching interest in how participatory design is performed through conversations, the analysis focuses on analogical reasoning through which the envisaged system is anchored to existing technologies and work practices. Three forms of analogical reasoning are identified: formulating design alternatives; challenging problem formulations; and telling stories. In various ways, these forms of analogical reasoning inform the ongoing design decision-making process, where the hypothetical technology and its organizational and work-related implications are evaluated. The study contributes to how analogical reasoning is done in interaction, and places the findings in the context of participatory design and studies of design reasoning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mouton de Gruyter, 2016
Keyword
analogical reasoning, participatory design, youth counselling, conversation analysis, ethnomethodology
National Category
Media and Communications Educational Sciences
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305363 (URN)10.1515/text-2016-0031 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-15 Created: 2016-10-15 Last updated: 2016-10-18
4. Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This article draws on data from a participatory design project developing services for online youth counselling. It investigates the outcomes and contingencies of participation for stakeholders (here counsellors) and how they make sense of their experiences of participating in a design project. The findings show how counsellors involved in a participatory design process develop new skills and knowledge as their roles and work practices in the project change overtime. The study is longitudinal, following a project that stretches over a period of three years, and addresses temporal aspects of participation, and in particular what happens when the design efforts come to an end and the designed service is launched. It is found that a participatory design project that fails with respect to its explicitly stated goals may still have positive secondary outcomes due to the engagement and process of situated learning among the participants involved.

Keyword
Participatory design project, secondary outcomes, transformative participation, participative experiences, online youth counselling
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305364 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-15 Created: 2016-10-15 Last updated: 2016-10-18

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