Opportunistic Routing in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks
Number of Authors: 5
2014 (English)In: TOSN: ACM Transactions on Sensor NetworksArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Opportunistic routing is widely known to have substantially better performance than unicast routing in wireless networks with lossy links. However, wireless sensor networks are heavily duty-cycled, i.e. they frequently enter sleep states to ensure long network life-time. This renders existing opportunistic routing schemes impractical, as they assume that nodes are always awake and can overhear other transmissions. In this paper we introduce ORW, a practical opportunistic routing scheme for wireless sensor networks. ORW uses a novel opportunistic routing metric, EDC, that reﬂects the expected number of duty-cycled wakeups that are required to successfully deliver a packet from source to destination. We devise distributed algorithms that ﬁnd the EDC-optimal forwarding and demonstrate using analytical performance models and simulations that EDC-based opportunistic routing results in signiﬁcantly reduced delay and improved energy efﬁciency compared to the traditional unicast routing. We compare the performance of the ORW protocol with other alternatives in both simulations and testbed-based experiments. Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Computer and Information Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-15509OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-15509DiVA: diva2:1036826