The concept of need-based systems is that they are not instantiated until they are brought to use. Such systems are either designed, assembled and instantiated for very concrete needs, alternatively built on speculation. They are used for evaluation, training or for real. In most cases they are not instantiated, though possibly brought into use as needed. How should needs be expressed? Needs are expressed in terms of results and effects. They may be simple or complex, where complex needs can be seen as structured compositions of more basic needs. When facing a hostile situation, it is critical to have predicted all needs necessary for resolving the given assignment. The complexity of needs, and of their interdependencies may appear to be overwhelming, and it is important to find optimal solutions to the problem at hand. What is needed is a knowledge-based conceptual model that describes the inter-relation of needs, predictions and effects. This paper proposes a number of viewpoints and tools to be applied to the construction of need-based systems -- viewing needs as a resource economy, as a non-linear dynamical system, making use of game theory, decision theory, and risk management. Models for needs and predictions, and the ways they are utilized, extends current systems engineering methods.
CIMI , 2006, 1.