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Beyond Recreational Gambling: a Psychological Perspective on Risk- and Problem Gambling
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to examine risk gambling in the general population from a psychological perspective. This was done in three studies targeting personality, risky alcohol habits and gambling motives, respectively. Initially, 19 530 randomly assigned Swedish citizens were screened for problem gambling via telephone using the two questions in the Lie/Bet questionnaire. This sample constitutes the basis for one of the studies in the thesis. For the other studies, individuals answering yes to one of the questions in the Lie/Bet questionnaire and agreeing to participate further were sent a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about gambling, personality and gambling motives.

 

Some of the main results showed that:

  • Negative consequences of gambling were associated with higher levels of impulsivity and negative affectivity.
  • Risk gamblers reported lower levels of negative affectivity compared to the general population.
  • Compared to non-risk gamblers, twice as many of the risk gamblers reported weekly binge drinking during the past 12 months. This association, however, seemed to be explained by shared demographic characteristics, rather than by the risk gambling causing binge drinking.
  • High risk gamblers more often reported that they gambled for the challenge and for coping reasons, compared to low risk gamblers.
  • High risk gamblers had overall stronger motives for gambling.
  • The results also indicated that the level of risk gambling was highly intertwined with gambling motives and could explain some differences in gambling motives between, for example, women/men and younger/older gamblers.

One of the focal points in the discussion was that higher levels of negative affectivity may be a cause of elevated problems rather than a cause of risk gambling. Another issue discussed was that the level of risk- /problem gambling may be important to consider when comparing gambling motives across subgroups of gamblers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University , 2016. , 83 p.
Keyword [en]
risk gambling, problem gambling, gambling motives, personality
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134623ISBN: 978-91-7649-539-1ISBN: 978-91-7649-540-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-134623DiVA: diva2:1034645
Public defence
2016-12-02, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers
2016 (English)In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

Keyword
Gambling, Gambling motives, Motives for gambling, Problem gambling, Risk gambling
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134612 (URN)10.1007/s10899-016-9607-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-18
2. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population
2015 (English)In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 1583-9583, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 2, 49-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530) were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking), at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire) and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking). There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months) weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35) and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90). After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR = 1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women). Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

Keyword
At-risk gambling, Binge drinking, Demographics
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134610 (URN)10.1016/j.abrep.2015.07.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample
2015 (English)In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, Vol. 31, no 4, 1287-1295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

Keyword
Gambling, Risk gambling, Problem gambling, Gambling disorder, Personality, Big five
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-124725 (URN)10.1007/s10899-014-9473-2 (DOI)000365283000013 ()24880745 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved

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