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An investigation into some aspects for foamed bitumen technology
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. (Väg- och banteknik)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite applications of foamed bitumen technology in pavement construction in various places around the world, there are still several aspects about this technology that are not clear. In addition, knowledge on foamed bitumen technology is mainly empirical and lacks scientific basis. This study addresses some of the aspects for foamed bitumen technology such as: Investigation of any effects in binder composition during the production process for foamed bitumen; assessment of the effect of bitumen source on foamed bitumen characteristics; development of a rational method to optimise foamed bitumen characteristics and conditions; evaluation of aggregate particle coating within foamed bitumen mixes; further improvements in the mix design procedure specifically the method of compaction and optimum bitumen content determination stages are suggested.  Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate any changes in bitumen composition after the production process of foamed bitumen. Fourier transform infrared tests were done on foamed bitumen and neat bitumen specimens for two bitumens with similar penetration grades. Foamed bitumen characteristics of three bitumens were established by producing foamed bitumen at temperatures of 150ºC up to 180ºC and foamant water contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. From the analysis of variation of foamed bitumen characteristics (maximum expansion ratio and half-life) at different temperatures a new method based on the equi-viscous bitumen temperature to optimize foamed bitumen conditions and characteristics was proposed. Rice density and surface energy concepts were used to evaluate aggregate particle coating with foamed bitumen. A granite aggregate divided into three different size fractions and three sets of foamed bitumen produced from three bitumen penetration grades were used. A gyratory laboratory compaction procedure for laterite gravels treated with foamed bitumen was established using the modified locking concept. Three laterite gravels with different chemical composition were mixed with foamed bitumen produced from one penetration bitumen grade. The resulting mixes were compacted up to 200 gyrations and the corresponding compaction curve defined in terms of height versus number of gyrations noted. In addition, the optimum moisture content requirements at the modified locking point were determined. 3D packing theory concepts, primary aggregate structure porosity and an indirect tensile strength criteria were employed to determine optimum bitumen content for foamed bitumen mixes.  Fourier infrared techniques revealed that foaming did not cause any changes in the bitumen chemistry, implying that the foamed bitumen production process may possibly be a physical process. Characterisation of foamed bitumen produced from three bitumen penetration grades showed that foamed bitumen characteristics (maximum expansion ratio and half-life) were mainly influenced by binder viscosity rather than the source. The equi-viscous temperature seemed to provide a suitable criterion at which foamed bitumen with optimum characteristics could be produced. Rice density results showed that aggregate size fraction, binder expansion ratio and viscosity influenced aggregate particle coating. For the coarser aggregate fraction, results revealed that binder coating seemed to be mainly influenced by temperature. Whilst for fine aggregate fraction the coating was mainly influenced by surface area. Surface energy results revealed that foamed bitumen exhibited better coating attributes than neat bitumen. A new laboratory compaction procedure for laterite gravels treated with foamed bitumen based on the modified locking point was developed. The modified locking point represents the state at which maximum aggregate particle interlock occurs when mixes are compacted in the field. It is based on the iii analysis of the rate of change for the gyratory compaction curve. The compaction curve in this case is defined in terms of compaction height versus number of gyrations. Gradation analysis beyond the modified locking point showed that aggregate particle breakdown occurred. Analysis of the optimum moisture at the modified locking point revealed that the moisture conditions were less than the aggregate optimum moisture conditions. It is recommended that this point be used to determine the optimal compaction characteristics of foamed bitumen mixes.  Aggregate structure porosity and an indirect tensile strength criteria can be used to determine the bitumen content that could be used in design of foamed bitumen mixes. This would reduce the amount of resources required since the bitumen content could be estimated prior to carrying out the actual laboratory work given that the aggregate grading is known. The aggregate structure can be divided (based on 3D packing theory) into oversize, primary, and secondary structures. The primary structure is mostly responsible for carrying loads whilst the secondary structure fills the voids within the primary structure and provides support to the primary structure. The aggregate size particles constituting the primary structure are deduced as a function of standard sieve sizes using the packing theory concepts. The minimum sieve size for the primary structure is proposed as 1 mm. The oversize structure consists of aggregate particles whose size is greater than the maximum size for the primary structure. The secondary structure consists of aggregate particles whose size is below the minimum size for the primary structure. The primary aggregate structure porosity can be used to establish the starting bitumen content; the bitumen content at which this porosity is 50% is chosen as the initial bitumen content. Indirect tensile strength values corresponding to 50% primary porosity are determined as well as the bitumen contents and compared against the recommended minimum values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 51 p.
Series
TRITA-BYMA, ISSN 0349-5752 ; 2016:2
Keyword [en]
Foamed bitumen, Binder ageing, Aggregate coating, Compaction, Mix design, Aggregate porosity
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193916ISBN: 978-91-7729-097-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-193916DiVA: diva2:1034511
Public defence
2016-10-28, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161012

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Foamed bitumen in bituminous paving technology : state-of-the-art
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foamed bitumen in bituminous paving technology : state-of-the-art
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
foamed bitumen, foamed bitumen mixes/mixtures, state of the art
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33049 (URN)
Note
QC 20110427Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-27 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. Foaming Effects on Binder Chemistry and Aggregate Coatability using Foamed Bitumen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foaming Effects on Binder Chemistry and Aggregate Coatability using Foamed Bitumen
2011 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 12, no 4, 821-847 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Foaming effects on binder chemistry were investigated using two bitumens from different sources with similar grades. Infrared spectroscopy techniques were done on neat and foamed bitumen samples. Aggregate particle coating with foamed bitumen was studied using Rice density and surface energy concepts. Infrared spectra results showed that foaming does not change the bitumen chemistry. Rice density tests showed that the aggregate size mainly influenced binder coating of aggregate particles, bitumen was mostly concentrated within the fine fraction where foamed bitumen was used. Surface energy results revealed that foamed bitumen possesses higher coating attributes than neat bitumen. Film thickness results implied that aggregate size and surface area, expansion ratio and binder viscosity influences binder thickness.

Keyword
foamed bitumen, ageing, surface energy, aggregate coating, rice density, theoretical binder film thickness
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33037 (URN)10.3166/RMPD.12.821-847 (DOI)000298769200005 ()2-s2.0-84857566497 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120206. Uppdaterad från submitted till published 20120206Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Development of a gyratory compaction procedure for laterite gravels treated with foamed bitumen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a gyratory compaction procedure for laterite gravels treated with foamed bitumen
2013 (English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 14, no 3, 256-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determining of the optimum density of the compacted foamed bitumen-treated materials is an important part of determining the field placement conditions. Laterite gravels tend to be highly susceptible to breakdown during laboratory compaction with the standard Proctor hammer, which may not be representative of field conditions. In this paper, a new method is presented for determining the optimal compaction characteristics of laterite gravels-foamed bitumen mixes. A gyratory compactor was used for compaction. The modified locking point concept was used to determine the number of gyrations to compact mixes of laterite gravels and foamed bitumen. The optimal compaction moisture content was subsequently established at this point. The average number of gyrations that gave the locking point was 44; optimum moisture content (OMC) for compaction varied from 86% to 92% for gravels only. The modified locking point seems to be suitable for determining the optimal compaction characteristics of these mixes.

Keyword
foamed bitumen, laterite gravels, gyratory compaction, locking concept, moisture content
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-127436 (URN)10.1080/10298436.2012.705842 (DOI)000322305800004 ()2-s2.0-84873599137 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

QC 20130830

Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Exploratory study on bitumen content determination for foamed bitumen mixes based on porosity and indirect tensile strength
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploratory study on bitumen content determination for foamed bitumen mixes based on porosity and indirect tensile strength
2017 (English)In: International journal of traffic and transportation engineering, ISSN 2325-0062, E-ISSN 2325-0070, Vol. 4, no 2, 131-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimum bitumen content determination is one of the major aims for foamed bitumen mix design. However, mix design procedures for foamed bitumen mixes are still under development. In this paper a method to determine the optimum bitumen content for given foamed bitumen mix based on primary aggregate structure porosity and indirect tensile strength criterion is proposed. Using packing theory concepts, the aggregate gradation is divided into three aggregate structures which are oversize, primary and secondary structures. Porosity for the primary aggregate structure is determined for given bitumen contents. A maximum value for porosity of 50% for the primary aggregate structure is used to choose initial bitumen content. Furthermore, a minimum indirect tensile strength criteria is suggested to refine this bitumen content. This method enables a bitumen content value to be chosen prior to the start of experimental work, as porosity is expressed in terms of physical parameters such as aggregate and binder specific gravity, and aggregate gradation which are known before the mix design process. The bitumen content is then later refined when the indirect tensile strength is determined in the laboratory. This method would reduce resources such as time and materials that may be required during the mix design procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Foamed bitumen, Bitumen content, Aggregate, Porosity, Gradation framework, Indirect tensile strength
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193949 (URN)10.1016/j.jtte.2016.11.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85017381878 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161013

Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
5. A review of some aspects for foamed bitumen technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of some aspects for foamed bitumen technology
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193950 (URN)
Note

QC 20161013

Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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