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Development of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Applications
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanomaterials provides an opportunity for advancement towards self-powered systems. Self-powered systems are a new emerging technology, which allows the use of a system or a device that perform a function without the need for external power source like for example, a battery or any other type of source. This technology can for example use harvested energy from sources around us such as ambient mechanical vibrations, noise, and human movement, etc. and convert it to electric energy using the piezoelectric effect. For nanoscale devices, the size of traditional batteries is not suitable and will lead to loss of the concept of “nano”. This is due to the large size and the relatively large magnitude of the delivered power from traditional sources. The development of a nanogenerator (NG) to convert energy from the environment into electric energy would facilitate the development of some self-powered systems relying on nano- devices.

The main objective of this thesis is to fabricate a piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) NGs for low frequency (˂ 100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. For that, different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices.

Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of sandwiched NG for hand writing enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for wireless system using foot-step pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate either by one side growth technique or by using double sided growth. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique has worked as anisotropic directional sensor. This fabricated configurations showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic element (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges are also presented in the last chapter of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , 48 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1787
Keyword [en]
Zinc oxide (ZnO), hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, nanowires (NWs), nanogenerator (NG), energy harvesting, wireless data transmission
National Category
Nano Technology Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131858DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-131858ISBN: 9789176856932 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-131858DiVA: diva2:1034092
Public defence
2016-11-11, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Handwriting enabled harvested piezoelectric power using ZnO nanowires/polymer composite on paper substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handwriting enabled harvested piezoelectric power using ZnO nanowires/polymer composite on paper substrate
2014 (English)In: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 9, 221-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here, present a flexible handwriting driven nanogenerator (NG) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs)/polymer composite grown/deposited on paper substrate. The targeted configuration is composed of ZnO NWs/PVDF polymer ink pasted and sandwiched between two pieces of paper with ZnO NWs grown chemically on one side of each piece of paper. Other configurations utilizing a ZnO/PVDF ink with different ZnO morphologies on paper platform and others on plastic platform were fabricated for comparison. The mechanical pressure exerted on the paper platform while handwriting is then harvested by the ZnO NWs/polymer based NG to deliver electrical energy. Two handwriting modes were tested; these were slow (low pressure) and fast (high pressure) handwriting. The maximum achieved harvested open circuit voltage was 4.8 V. While an out power density as high as 1.3 mW/mm(2) was estimated when connecting the NG to a 100 Omega load resistor. The observed results were stable and reproducible. The present NG provides a low cost and scalable approach with many potential applications, like e.g. programmable paper for signature verification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Zinc oxide nanowires; Polymers; Paper substrate; Piezoelectricity; Energy harvesting; Nanogenerators
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112837 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.07.014 (DOI)000344632800025 ()
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2016-10-11
2. Low-Frequency Self-Powered Footstep Sensor Based on ZnO Nanowires on Paper Substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Frequency Self-Powered Footstep Sensor Based on ZnO Nanowires on Paper Substrate
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 11, no 156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we design and fabricate a wireless system with the main operating device based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. The main operating device is based on piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) achieved using ZnO nanowires grown hydrothermally on paper substrate. The fabricated NG is capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motion, e.g., footsteps. The harvested electric output has been used to serve as a self-powered pressure sensor. Without any storage device, the signal from a single footstep has successfully triggered a wireless sensor node circuit. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2016
Keyword
ZnO; Hydrothermal growth; Piezoelectric nanowire; Nanogenerator; Energy harvesting; Wireless data transmission
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127433 (URN)10.1186/s11671-016-1373-1 (DOI)000373089300004 ()27000024 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|CeNano grant; Swedish Government strategic research area in material science on functional materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-05-01 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30
3. Low frequency accelerator sensor based on piezoelectric ZnO nanorods grown by low temperature scalable process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low frequency accelerator sensor based on piezoelectric ZnO nanorods grown by low temperature scalable process
2016 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 213, no 9, 2503-2508 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Piezoelectric vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown by low temperature aqueous chemical approach and successfully used as a low frequency self-powered accelerator detector system. The nanogenerator (NG) device was tested under the influence of low frequency vibrations, different load masses, and finger prints pressure. The experimental results show relatively high sensitivity to frequencies as low as 5 Hz. This energy conversion device has produced a maximum output voltage of about 0.3 and 1.4 V under a frequency of 41 Hz and a mass of 1000 g, respectively. The fabricated NG can be used as an accelerator sensor with a good performance in the range from about 0.67 to 5.5 m s−2 with a sensitivity of 0.045 V s2 m−1. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the NG is able to harvest energy under finger-print scanning. The result from the finger-print pressure was consistent with the masses testing results. This energy-harvesting technology also provides a simple and cost-effective platform to capture low-frequency mechanical energy, i.e., body movements, and other applications like developing a sensitive finger print camera, etc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128901 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201600142 (DOI)000388318600035 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Advanced Functional Materials (AFM) at Linkoping University, Sweden; CeNano grant at Linkoping University, Sweden

Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
4. A flexible anisotropic self-powered piezoelectric direction sensor based on double sided ZnO nanowires configuration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A flexible anisotropic self-powered piezoelectric direction sensor based on double sided ZnO nanowires configuration
2015 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 26, no 9, 095502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have successfully synthesized highly dense and well aligned zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) on the two sides of a PEDOT: PSS substrate by a single step low temperature hydrothermal method. The grown sample was used to fabricate a double sided piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG). The maximum harvested output power density from the fabricated double sided NG configuration was about 4.44 mW cm(-2). The results obtained from the present double sided NG were approximately double the output from a single side. In addition to that, the voltage polarity of the harvested voltage from the two sides of the NG has been investigated. The results showed that upon bending, an anisotropic voltage polarity is generated on the two sides. Indicating that, this double sided NG can be used as a self-powered voltage polarity based direction sensor. The results of the present flexible double sided NG is very promising for harvesting energy from irregular mechanical energy sources in the surrounding environment. In addition, the fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance and security applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing: Hybrid Open Access, 2015
Keyword
hydrothermal growth; nanogenerator; energy harvesting; piezoelectric nanowires
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115311 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/26/9/095502 (DOI)000349494600012 ()25676711 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|CeNano grant; Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, Norrkoping, SE-601 4 Norrkoping, Sweden

Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires
2014 (English)In: Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1847-9804, E-ISSN 1847-9804, Vol. 4, no 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-quality single crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown on silver and gold coated plastic substrates for the fabrication of a sandwich-like nanogenerator using the aqueous chemical growth method. The applicability of this configuration as a nanogenerator is demonstrated by studying the harvested electrical output under mechanical deformation. Three different configurations were fabricated and utilized for harvesting piezoelectric potential by applying an external force. The maximum resulting output open circuit voltage and short circuit current were 2.4 V and 152.2 mu A, respectively. The comparison between the different configurations indicates that more piezoelectric potential can be harvested by using two arrays of ZnO NWs placed face-to-face than by using a single nanowire configuration. In addition, the use of a piezoelectric polymer will enhance the amount of generated piezoelectric potential. The obtained results from different configurations of zinc oxide nanowire nanogenerators offer a cost-effective, flexible, long term stable nanogenerator for promising application. The principle of the sandwich nanogenerator demonstrated a new idea for novel self-powering nanotechnology that harvests electricity from the environment for applications such as portable electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech, 2014
Keyword
Aqueous chemical Growth Method; Zinc Oxide Nanowires; Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111449 (URN)10.5772/59068 (DOI)000342088500001 ()
Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method
Show others...
2015 (English)In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 5, no 7, 077163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1-xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1-xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1-xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120876 (URN)10.1063/1.4927510 (DOI)000358922500063 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Advanced Functional Materials (AFM) at Linkoping University, Sweden; CeNano grant at Linkoping University, Sweden

Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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