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Grid Connection of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Renewable Energy Systems
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy is harnessed from continuously replenishing natural processes. Some commonly known are sunlight, water, wind, tides, geothermal heat and various forms of biomass. The focus on renewable energy has over the past few decades intensified greatly. This thesis contributes to the research on developing renewable energy technologies, within the wind power, wave power and marine current power projects at the division of Electricity, Uppsala University. In this thesis grid connection of permanent magnet generator based renewable energy sources is evaluated.

A tap transformer based grid connection system has been constructed and experimentally evaluated for a vertical axis wind turbine. Full range variable speed operation of the turbine is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. This removes the need for a DC/DC step or an active rectifier on the generator side of the full frequency converter and thereby reduces system complexity. Experiments and simulations of the system for variable speed operation are done and efficiency and harmonic content are evaluated. 

The work presented in the thesis has also contributed to the design, construction and evaluation of a full-scale offshore marine substation for wave power intended to grid connect a farm of wave energy converters. The function of the marine substation has been experimentally tested and the substation is ready for deployment. Results from the system verification are presented. Special focus is on the transformer losses and transformer in-rush currents.

A control and grid connection system for a vertical axis marine current energy converter has been designed and constructed. The grid connection is done with a back-to-back 2L-3L system with a three level cascaded H-bridge converter grid side. The system has been tested in the laboratory and is ready to be installed at the experimental site. Results from the laboratory testing of the system are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 79 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1436
Keyword [en]
VAWT, H-rotor, Tap Transformer, Cascaded H-bridge Multi-Level, Renewable Energy, Wind power, Wave power, Marine Current Power
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304659ISBN: 978-91-554-9712-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-304659DiVA: diva2:1033398
Public defence
2016-11-25, Polhemsalen, 10134, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Wind PowerWave PowerMarine Currnet Power
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Implementation of control system for hydro-kinetic energy converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of control system for hydro-kinetic energy converter
(English)In: Journal of Control Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-5249Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Energy Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181554 (URN)
Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of a Blade Force Measurement System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Load Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a Blade Force Measurement System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Load Cells
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2015 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 6, 5973-5996 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unique blade force measurements on an open site straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine have been performed. This paper presents a method for measuring the tangential and normal forces on a 12-kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype with a three-bladed H-rotor. Four single-axis load cells were installed in-between the hub and the support arms on one of the blades. The experimental setup, the measurement principle, together with the necessary control and measurement system are described. The maximum errors of the forces and accompanying weather data that can be obtained with the system are carefully estimated. Measured forces from the four load cells are presented, as well as the normal and tangential forces derived from them and a comparison with theoretical data. The measured torque and bending moment are also provided. The influence of the load cells on the turbine dynamics has also been evaluated. For the aerodynamic normal force, the system provides periodic data in agreement with simulations. Unexpected mechanical oscillations are present in the tangential force, introduced by the turbine dynamics. The measurement errors are of an acceptable size and often depend on the measured variable. Equations are presented for the calculation of measurement errors.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260148 (URN)10.3390/en8065973 (DOI)000357489700067 ()
Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
3. The Söderfors Project: Experimental Hydrokinetic Power Station Deployment and First Results
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Söderfors Project: Experimental Hydrokinetic Power Station Deployment and First Results
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2013 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Division of Electricity at Uppsala University recently deployed an experimental hydrokinetic power station for in-stream experiments at a site in a river. This paper briefly describes the deployment process and reports some initial results from measurements made at the test site.

Keyword
Marine Current Power, Renewable energy, Söderfors, Strömkraft, Förnybar energi, Söderfors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209220 (URN)
Conference
10th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), 2-5 september, 2013, Aalborg, Denmark
Projects
Marine Current Power
Funder
StandUpSwedish Research Council, 621-2009-4946
Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
4. On a Two Pole Motor for Electric Propulsion System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On a Two Pole Motor for Electric Propulsion System
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 2319 - 5967, Vol. 2, no 1, 99-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207170 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
5. Efficiency of a Directly Driven Generator for Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency of a Directly Driven Generator for Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion
2013 (English)In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, 978140- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An experimental setup for hydrokinetic energy conversion comprising a vertical axis turbine, a directly driven permanent magnet generator, and a control system has been designed and constructed for deployment in the river Dalälven in Sweden. This paper is devoted to discussing the mechanical and electrical design of the generator used in the experimental setup. The generator housing is designed to be water tight, and it also acts as a support structure for the turbine shaft. The generator efficiency has been measured in the range of 5–16.7 rpm, showing that operation in the low velocity range up to 1.5 m/s is possible with a directly driven generator.

Keyword
permanent magnet, cable wound, tidal energy, ocean energy, generator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-195876 (URN)10.1155/2013/978140 (DOI)000325895100001 ()
Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
6. Inverter topology with integrated on-load tap change for grid-connection of renewable electric energy sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inverter topology with integrated on-load tap change for grid-connection of renewable electric energy sources
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230780 (URN)
Conference
Grand Renewable Energy Conference on Energy Network and Power Electronics, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2016-10-06
7. Experimental Verifications of Offshore Marine Substation for Grid-Connection of Wave Energy Farm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verifications of Offshore Marine Substation for Grid-Connection of Wave Energy Farm
2013 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Istanbul, Turkey: , 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212686 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems (EPECS)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2016-10-06
8. Transformer Magnetization Losses Using a Nonfiltered Voltage-Source Inverter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transformer Magnetization Losses Using a Nonfiltered Voltage-Source Inverter
2013 (English)In: Advances in Power Electronics, Vol. 2013, 7- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Results from the magnetization of an 80 kVA power transformer, using a directly coupled nonfiltered three-phase voltage-source inverter (VSI), are presented. The major benefits of this topology are reduction in switching filter size as well as filter losses. Drawbacks include higher stress on the transformer windings and higher transformer magnetization losses. In this paper, the total magnetization losses are presented for different voltage levels. The transformer has been magnetized with the rated frequency of 50 Hz at various voltage levels. The saturation characteristics as well as the magnetizing resistance are derived as functions of the voltage. These are used as inputs for the simulations. The magnetization losses have been experimentally measured and simulated for three different DC levels. Results from the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results. As expected, the pulsed voltage waveforms generate larger magnetization losses than the corresponding 50 Hz case. The losses are strongly dependent on the DC level.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212665 (URN)10.1155/2013/261959 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2016-10-06
9. Transformer Magnetizing Inrush Currents Using a Directly Coupled Voltage-Source Inverter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transformer Magnetizing Inrush Currents Using a Directly Coupled Voltage-Source Inverter
2013 (English)In: ISRN Electronics, Vol. 2013, 8- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The connection of a power transformer to the grid is associated with magnetizing inrush currents that may result in power quality issues as well as faulty relay tripping. In distributed generation, the transformer may instead be premagnetized from the source to avoid this. In this paper, a VSI is directly coupled to a transformer. Three different strategies of premagnetization are implemented into the control system, and the inrush currents are measured for various values of the remanent flux in the core. The results show good reduction in the peak magnetizing inrush currents without using any external circuitry.

National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212663 (URN)10.1155/2013/361643 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2016-10-06
10. Wireless System for Tidal Effect Compensation in the Lysekil Research Site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless System for Tidal Effect Compensation in the Lysekil Research Site
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the ASME 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, vol. 7, 2012, 293-298 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes, firstly, the rope adjustment device for wave energy converters (WECs) to minimize the tidal effect on the electricity production and, secondly, a wireless communication network between point absorbing WECs in the Lysekil Research Site and a computer station at the Department of Engineering Sciences at Uppsala University. The device is driven by a motor that activates when the main water level deviates from the average. The adjustment is achieved through a screw that moves upwards during low tides and downwards during high tides. For the purpose of testing the device in the research site, a wireless connection between the buoy in the sea and a computer on land will be designed. A sensor located close to the research site monitors the sea water level and, every time a significant variation is registered, it sends wirelessly a signal to the data logger that controls the power to the motor The position of the screw is observed by a second sensor and the measurements are retrieved back to Uppsala via GSM connection. The full scale device is tested in the lab and it is demonstrated to work properly, requiring less than 750 W to lift and lower different loads. Moreover, the wireless communication network is designed and once it will be built, it will allow to recall and store data, send information from one node of the system to another, monitor the proper functioning of the device and modify the control as desired.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-190207 (URN)10.1115/OMAE2012-83361 (DOI)000324507000036 ()978-0-7918-4494-6 (ISBN)
Conference
31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, July 1-6, 2012 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
11. Experimental Verification of a Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Connection System for a Marine Current Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verification of a Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Connection System for a Marine Current Energy Converter
2016 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Rivers, tides and other ocean currents are renewable energy sources with great potential across the globe.A research group at Uppsala University is working on converting the power in rivers and ocean tidesusing a vertical axis turbine with a directly driven permanent magnet generator. The concept in focususes an omnidirectional, fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnetgenerator. Few moving parts and an overall low mechanical complexity is the main idea behind theconcept. A first full prototype was deployed in 2013 in the river Dalälven in the town of Söderfors. Thework presented here is a step towards grid connection of the marine current energy converter prototype.A back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology has been proposed. The system is adapted to the scaledprototype but is intended for larger turbines. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a three-levelcascaded H-Bridge voltage source converter (3L-CHBVSC) on the grid side together with a well knowtwo-level voltage source converter on the generator side. The use of a multilevel converter brings severaladvantages such as higher efficiency, more sinusoidal voltages and currents and smaller grid filtersamong other advantages. The proposed grid connection system has been constructed in the laboratory.The work presented here aims to evaluate the system in the laboratory. A synchronous generator with avery similar design to the on-site generator is used for the tests. The generator, driven by an inductionmotor, is connected to the system and power is successfully transferred to the grid. The conducted testsare used to verify the functionality of the system before installation at the research site.

Keyword
marine current energy converter, grid connection, three-level cascaded H-bridge
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304658 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Offshore Renewable Energy (CORE2016), Glasgow, UK, Sep. 12-14, 2016.
Projects
Marine Current Power
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-12
12. A Review of Research on Large Scale Modern Vertical Axis Wind Turbines at Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Research on Large Scale Modern Vertical Axis Wind Turbines at Uppsala University
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 7, 570Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a review of over a decade of research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) conducted at Uppsala University. The paper presents, among others, an overview of the 200 kW VAWT located in Falkenberg, Sweden, as well as a description of the work done on the 12 kW prototype VAWT in Marsta, Sweden. Several key aspects have been tested and successfully demonstrated at our two experimental research sites. The effort of the VAWT research has been aimed at developing a robust large scale VAWT technology based on an electrical control system with a direct driven energy converter. This approach allows for a simplification where most or all of the control of the turbines can be managed by the electrical converter system, reducing investment cost and need for maintenance. The concept features an H-rotor that is omnidirectional in regards to wind direction, meaning that it can extract energy from all wind directions without the need for a yaw system. The turbine is connected to a direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), located at ground level, that is specifically developed to control and extract power from the turbine. The research is ongoing and aims for a multi-megawatt VAWT in the near future.

Keyword
wind power, vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304654 (URN)10.3390/en9070570 (DOI)000381497300092 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved
13. Evaluation of Harmonic Content from a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection System for Wind Power
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Harmonic Content from a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection System for Wind Power
2013 (English)In: Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol. 2013, 8- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Simulations done in MATLAB/Simulink together with experiments conducted at the Ångströms laboratory are used to evaluate and discuss the total harmonic distortion (THD) and total demand distortion (TDD) of a tap transformer based grid connection system. The grid connection topology can be used with different turbine and generator topologies and is here applied on a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and its operational scheme. The full variable-speed wind conversion system consists of a diode rectifier, DC link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. The full variable-speed operation is enabled by the use of the different step-up ratios of the tap transformer. In the laboratory study, a full experimental setup of the system was used, a clone of the on-site PMSG driven by a motor was used, and the grid was replaced with a resistive load. With a resistive load, grid harmonics and possible unbalances are removed. The results show a TDD and THD below 5% for the full operating range and harmonic values within the limits set up by IEEE-519. Furthermore, a change in tap, going to a lower step-up ratio, results in a reduction in both THD and TDD for the same output power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212639 (URN)10.1155/2013/190573 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-12 Last updated: 2016-10-06
14. System Efficiency of a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection Topology Applied on a Direct Driven Generator for Wind Power
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Efficiency of a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection Topology Applied on a Direct Driven Generator for Wind Power
2014 (English)In: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 1537-744X, 784295- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Results from experiments on a tap transformer based grid connection system for a variable speed vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The tap transformer based system topology consists of a passive diode rectifier, DC-link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. Full range variable speed operation is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink have been performed in order to study the behavior of the system. A full experimental set up of the system has been used in the laboratory study, where a clone of the on-site generator was driven by an induction motor and the system was connected to a resistive load to better evaluate the performance. Furthermore, the system is run and evaluated for realistic wind speeds and variable speed operation. For a more complete picture of the system performance, a case study using real site Weibull parameters is done, comparing different tap selection options. The results show high system efficiency at nominal power and an increase in overall power output for full tap operation in comparison with the base case, a standard transformer. In addition, the loss distribution at different wind speeds is shown, which highlights the dominant losses at low and high wind speeds. Finally, means for further increasing the overall system efficiency are proposed.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237603 (URN)10.1155/2014/784295 (DOI)000343577000001 ()
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
15. Evaluation of Damping Strategies for Maximum Power Extraction from a Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Damping Strategies for Maximum Power Extraction from a Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230783 (URN)
Conference
Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, Tokyo, Japan,
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2016-10-06
16. Laboratory verification of system for grid connection of a 12 kW variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory verification of system for grid connection of a 12 kW variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator
2012 (English)In: EWEA 2012 Annual Event, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012, 2012Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper the first laboratory tests of the gridconnection system, connected to a resistiveload, for a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT)with a permanent magnet generator arepresented. The system is based on a taptransformertopology with a voltage sourceinverter and an LCL-filter. The use of a taptransformer topology eliminates the need for aDC-DC converter to handle the variations inDC voltage. The harmonic content of thecurrents from experiments and simulationsperformed in Simulink using different taps onthe transformer are presented. The simulatedcurrents, fed to the resistive load, have a totalharmonic distortion (THD) of 0.5% to 0.9% forthe different taps. The experimental systemhas a current THD ranging from 1.8% to 2.8%.The difference is expected to be due tounbalances, delays and dead times in theexperimental set-up as the major THDcontribution is from harmonic orders below 11.The results show that an LCL filter can bedesigned to meet the demands on powerquality for grid connection of the system withall the taps of the tap transformer inaccordance with IEEE 519-1992.

Keyword
VAWT, Tap transformer, LCL-filter, voltage source inverter
National Category
Energy Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182434 (URN)
Conference
EWEA 2012 Annual Event, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012
Available from: 2012-10-10 Created: 2012-10-10 Last updated: 2016-10-06
17. A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter
2015 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 2, 808-820 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253090 (URN)10.3390/en8020808 (DOI)000353555400001 ()
Available from: 2015-05-26 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
18. Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 2, 475-484 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a critical review of the drivelines in all Electric Vehicles (EVs). The motor topologies that are the best candidates to be used in EVs are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each electric motor type are discussed from a system perspective. A survey of the electric motors used in commercial EVs is presented. The survey shows that car manufacturers are very conservative when it comes to introducing new technologies. Most of the EV’s in the market mount a single induction or permanent magnet motor with a traditional mechanic driveline with a differential. The study illustrates that comparisons between the different motors are made difficult by the large number of parameters and the lack of a recommended test scheme. The authors propose that a standardized drive cycle is used to test and compare motors.

Keyword
Motor drives, Road vehicle electric propulsion, Road vehicle power systems, Traction motors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157858 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2011.2177873 (DOI)000300427400005 ()
Available from: 2012-04-19 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved

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