Microclimate in Cold Climates: A Study of a Neighbourhood Park in Kiruna Focusing on Sun and Wind
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
How the urban form effects the microclimate depends on several factors such as sun, wind, snow and the landscape. Different guidelines regarding successful urban winter places share common principles: allow solar access, protect from cold winds and avoid snowdrift. In this thesis, the aim is to study how the urban design effects the microclimates in cold climates and to test if guidelines are applicable in Kiruna.Kiruna is currently facing a large urban transformation. A Development Plan for new Kiruna has been produced. The plan proposes a new more compact urban form with a variety of different public spaces. In this thesis, an investigation of one of the neighbourhood parks in Kiruna have been undertaken to explore ways to prolong the outdoor comfort. In addition, simulations of sun and wind in the park has been conducted. The climate of different cities has also been studied to compare the literature with the climate in Kiruna. Results show that Kiruna’s experience is more extreme climate than many author´s refer to.The study is primarily based on secondary research but primary research was conducted with people involved in Kiruna and its Master Planning. The computer simulations of buildings and spaces are prepared for examples of plot ratios given in the Master Plan for Kiruna. Different building heights have also been tested to compare the effects of low and high building structures.Sun simulations were made from four different sun positions. From February to June. Due to the low sun angle Kiruna experiences, the simulations in December were too dark to distinguish the buildings from the surrounding. As such, these are not included within this thesis. Simulations showed that from March 20th and the building height made of four stories, the park is not affected by the building height.The wind was simulated from south, southwest and from north which are the common wind directions in Kiruna. Simulations highlighted that taller buildings create a better microclimate in the park compared to lower buildings.The results from simulations often contradicted each other: lower buildings are preferable regarding sun and taller buildings are better due to the wind. However, the amount of direct solar access the park experience is less in comparison to the wind which is throughout the year. This leads to the conclusion that wind impacts overweigh the benefits of solar penetration.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 74 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-58235Local ID: ed1cc91f-507c-43ef-8ef5-0e01711516ceOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-58235DiVA: diva2:1031623
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Architectural Engineering, master's level
Validerat; 20150615 (global_studentproject_submitter)2016-10-042016-10-04Bibliographically approved