Lekland: Utrymningsmöjligheter och möjlig brand
Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
During the year of 2010, a funland in Borlänge was burned to the ground. The development of the fire was fast and critical condition for evacuation happened fast. There were few visitors in the funland at this time and they all managed to evacuate without any harm. Funlands often contains large play structures with plastic coated steel pipes and a large amount of the plastics in a funland are contained within large slides, protections in case of falling and other details. Funlands are often built in old industry locals or warehouses.The report aims to highlight the problems that can occur during evacuation of funland. Portions of this are to examine the behavior of children during evacuation, possible fire in the funland and opportunities for the design of the funland.Two different funlands are studied in this report. One of them was built in an old clothes shop during 2013 and the other one was built in an old industry local during 2008.To investigate the possibility of evacuation a literature study was to be made. These literature studies have involved studies of children's behavior during evacuation and studies in scenario analysis, criteria for safe egress and evacuation analysis according to the Constitution Board's guidelines on analytical design of fire protection of buildings (Boverkets allmänna råd om analytisk dimensionering av byggnaders brandskydd (BBRAD)).The scenario analysis and evacuation calculations have been made on the existing funlands. To do these analysis, computer programs such as Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) has been used for the fire simulations and Simulex and hand calculation methods from BBRAD has been used for evacuation calculations.An identification of plastics in the play structures was done to determine a possible fire in a funland. Sensitivity analysis for the identified parameters was performed and was compared to a reference simulation according to given values from BBRAD. A fire with ultra-fast fire growth rate is possible with respect the involved plastics.The result of the evacuation analysis gave that a complete evacuation of a funland will take a very long time. An important part that creates the long evacuation time is the children’s behavior during evacuation where it isn’t possible to assume that they can manage the evacuation by themselves without assistance. The other part is the play structures available in the funlands. They are impressive structures with many nooks and crannies that impede evacuation.In summary, the criteria for safe evacuation in BBRAD are not met by any of the funlands. This leads to that greater demands must be set on fire protection in funlands with respect to the possible fire that may occur and the behavior of children during evacuation. Linked to this, the fire protection in a funland should be verified by using analytical methods and it should be investigated which activity class funlands should be classified as according to the building regulations. Depending on the business class, different requirements for fire safety are required.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 99 p.
Teknik, FDS, Simulex, lekland, utrymning, brand, BBRAD, barn, plast
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-58009Local ID: e9aa7bdf-66b2-429d-9132-fa83c39e83b7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-58009DiVA: diva2:1031397
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 15 credits
Fire Protection Engineer, bachelor's level
Validerat; 20131127 (global_studentproject_submitter)2016-10-042016-10-04Bibliographically approved