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Designing local sanitation facilities for Mongolia
2006 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Still in year 2005 more than 2.6 billion people in the world lack access to improved sanitation. In Mongolia the number of people with access to improved sanitation is 42.6% in the cities and not more than 4.8% for the rural population. NGO’s and UN-organizations are making efforts to improve the sanitation situation and this year WHO-Mongolia is conducting a demonstration project aiming at upgrading the Simple pit latrines in Soum schools and Soum hospitals that often are in very bad condition. The problems constitute of risky holes, slippery floors, upbuild of frozen sludge and filthy latrine compartments. This thesis aims at finding and proposing an appropriate sanitation facility for implementation in the WHO-project. That includes defining the criteria that should be fulfilled, as well as discussing advantages and weaknesses with existing designs and technologies. Several sanitation options were considered and discussed during the work, first in the literature study and then during the trip to Mongolia that included field studies and meetings with officials. The solutions that were of interest were the Ventilated Improved Pit latrine, EcoSan-toilets and a Large Pit latrine that has been used in the Swedish mountain region. The sanitation option that was found most suitable for implementation in Mongolian Soum hospitals and schools is the so called “Swedish Pit latrine”, based on the pit latrine that can be found at tourist camps in Swedish mountain regions. Its most salient feature is the advanced ventilation, allowing up to 70% liquid reduction by evaporation that results in a very dry end product. The ”sous terrain” design enables emptying of dried excreta by a door placed in side of the excreta chamber that is above ground. It is important that the amount of liquid added to the pit is kept to a minimum in order to avoid sludge build up. Thus it must be assured that grey water is discharged of elsewhere, for example in an infiltration system. The infiltration system that is proposed in this thesis consists of a septic tank and perforated pipes by which the grey water can infiltrate the soil. The other proposed latrine alternatives are: • The Solar Panel latrine, which is a more advanced version of the Swedish pit latrine and is suitable for hospitals as well as schools. • The Mobile Pit latrine that is meant as an alternative for nomads. The superstructure of the Mobile Pit latrine is made of light canvas and the riser should be fabricated in fiberglass. All the latrine options above include a riser and a heat insulating seat made of Styrofoam.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Keyword [en]
Technology, Mongolia, sanitation, pit latrines, small-scale, sustainable, water and sanitation, cold climate, småskalig, VA-, teknik
Keyword [sv]
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-57588ISRN: LTU-EX--06/199--SELocal ID: e3cbd476-3798-4864-8ed9-7e4c2e811708OAI: diva2:1030976
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Environmental Engineering, master's level
Validerat; 20101217 (root)Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved

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