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Modelling collective movement and transport network formation in living systems
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The emergence of collective patterns from repeated local interactions between individuals is a common feature to most living systems, spanning a variety of scales from cells to animals and humans. Subjects of this thesis are two aspects of emergent complexity in living systems: collective movement and transport network formation. For collective movement, this thesis studies the role of movement-mediated information transfer in fish decision-making. The second project on collective movement takes inspiration from granular media and soft mode analysis and develops a new approach to describe the emergence of collective phenomena from physical interactions in extremely dense crowds. As regards transport networks, this thesis proposes a model of network growth to extract simple, biologically plausible rules that reproduce topological properties of empirical ant trail networks.  In the second project on transport networks, this thesis starts from the simple rule of “connecting each new node to the closest one”, that describes ants building behavior, to study how balancing local building costs and global maintenance costs influences the growth and topological properties of transport networks. These projects are addressed through a modeling approach and with the aim of identifying minimal sets of basic mechanisms that are most likely responsible of large-scale complex patterns. Mathematical models are always based on empirical observations and are, when possible, compared to experimental data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Mathematics, 2016. , p. 56
Series
Uppsala Dissertations in Mathematics, ISSN 1401-2049 ; 96
Keyword [en]
animal collective behaviour, transport networks, crowd dynamics, complex systems, ants, fish
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Applied Mathematics and Statistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303943ISBN: 978-91-506-2599-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-303943DiVA, id: diva2:1027632
Public defence
2016-11-25, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-11-15
List of papers
1. Local cost minimization in ant transport networks: from small-scale data to large-scale trade-offs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local cost minimization in ant transport networks: from small-scale data to large-scale trade-offs
2015 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 12, no 112, article id 20150780Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transport networks distribute resources and information in many human and biological systems. Their construction requires optimization and balance of conflicting criteria such as robustness against disruptions, transport efficiency and building cost. The colonies of the polydomous Australian meat ant Iridomyrmex purpureus are a striking example of such a decentralized network, consisting of trails that connect spatially separated nests. Here we study the rules that underlie network construction in these ants. We find that a simple model of network growth, which we call the minimum linking model (MLM), is sufficient to explain the growth of real ant colonies. For larger networks, the MLM shows a qualitative similarity with a Euclidean minimum spanning tree, prioritizing cost and efficiency over robustness. We introduce a variant of our model to show that a balance between cost, efficiency and robustness can be also reproduced at larger scales than ant colonies. Remarkably, such a balance is influenced by a parameter reflecting the specific features of the modelled transport system. The extended MLM could thus be a suitable source of inspiration for the construction of cheap and efficient transport networks with non-zero robustness, suggesting possible applications in the design of human-made networks.

Keyword
transport networks, network growth model, graph theory, ant collective behaviour, ant colony, network optimization
National Category
Other Natural Sciences Mathematics Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268402 (URN)10.1098/rsif.2015.0780 (DOI)000363987900009 ()
Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds
2016 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 117, no 22, article id 228301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303941 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.228301 (DOI)000388630000032 ()
Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
3. How Do Fish Use the Movement of Other Fish to Make Decisions?: From Individual Movement to Collective Decision Making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Do Fish Use the Movement of Other Fish to Make Decisions?: From Individual Movement to Collective Decision Making
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Complex Systems 2012 / [ed] Thomas Gilbert, Markus Kirkilionis, Gregoire Nicolis, 2013, Vol. V, p. 591-606Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Series
Springer Proceedings in Complexity, ISSN 2213-8684
Keyword
Collective animal behaviour, Decision making, SPP models, Fish
National Category
Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301517 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-00395-5_73 (DOI)9783319003948 (ISBN)9783319003955 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Complex Systems 2012
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
4. Balancing building and maintenance costs in growing transport networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing building and maintenance costs in growing transport networks
2017 (English)In: Physical revview E, ISSN 2470-0045, Vol. 96, no 3, article id 032316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The costs associated to the length of links impose unavoidable constraints to the growth of natural and artificial transport networks. When future network developments cannot be predicted, the costs of building and maintaining connections cannot be minimized simultaneously, requiring competing optimization mechanisms. Here, we study a one-parameter nonequilibrium model driven by an optimization functional, defined as the convex combination of building cost and maintenance cost. By varying the coefficient of the combination, the model interpolates between global and local length minimization, i.e., between minimum spanning trees and a local version known as dynamical minimum spanning trees. We show that cost balance within this ensemble of dynamical networks is a sufficient ingredient for the emergence of tradeoffs between the network's total length and transport efficiency, and of optimal strategies of construction. At the transition between two qualitatively different regimes, the dynamics builds up power-law distributed waiting times between global rearrangements, indicating a point of nonoptimality. Finally, we use our model as a framework to analyze empirical ant trail networks, showing its relevance as a null model for cost-constrained network formation.

National Category
Mathematics Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303938 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032316 (DOI)000411991200004 ()
Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2017-12-20Bibliographically approved

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