Räddningstjänstens kunskap och nyttjande av brandtekniska installationer
Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
This report aims to investigate the knowledge and use by the fire and rescue service of building-code required fire service facilities. The report covers to what extend different fire service facilities are used during the fire-fighting and rescue responses and further more if there are any common points of weakness in regards to usage of the installations. The report also covers if there are other installations that are considered necessary to the firefighting operations, but are not required by the building code. The type of facilities that have been studied are those which are required by the building code to aid firefighting and rescue responses in regards to smoke gas venting of stairways, fire compartments in attics and basements in a building, pressurized and non-pressurized fire risers and rescue lift, as examples. This academic report is based on field-reports and investigations from rescue responses. The report material is complemented with interviews that have been conducted with commands from various fire brigades. A study of building codes requirements relating to firefighting facilities have been undertaken to clarify what regulations property owner and the fire brigade have to take into account for certain types of buildings. The results show that knowledge within the fire brigade is to be deemed sufficient in regards to smoke gas venting of stairways, basements, attics and non-pressurized fire risers. Some commands requested more practical exercises to improve the knowledge about how to use these facilities. The results also show that the methods for fighting attic fires vary between commands. Some commands conveyed that the preferred method to fight an attic fire is to ventilate at an early stage while other commands said that the preferred method was to enclose the fire to limit the available oxygen and thereafter use tools that make it possible to fight the fire from outside the building, by using a “Cobra” fire-fighting system as an example. The results also show that knowledge in regards to use of pressurized fire risers and rescue lifts are insufficient. The reason for this lack of knowledge is deemed to be that that these kind of installations are only required in high-rise building which are uncommon outside of urban areas. From the study of the field-reports and prior investigations of fire-fighting and rescue operations, it can be concluded that all remarks in regards to failing systems was due to lack of maintenance. This was also confirmed by the interviews, where all commands communicated that a main reason for the installations not being used in the field where the fact that using, or attempting to use, these malfunctioning installations where very time consuming. As a result from the interviews, the following areas have been identified as where further studies and investigations should be conducted:- New and more developed installations lead to a higher demand for adaptability of the fire brigade in regards to organizing and planning fire-fighting and rescue responses. To achieve a more flexible organization, more support and education for firefighting operations can be required in regards to these more technically advanced installations. - Regulations from the Authority of Working Environment prescribe the requirement for ability to communicate during fire-fighting operations. This requirement should have been taken into account in the Building Codes as well in regards to the risk of failing communicating abilities in tall and large buildings. - Building Code standard for sizing of openings for smoke gas ventilation do not correspond to the required size of openings needed for the fire brigade portable pressurized fans.- The need for smoke venting of horizontal egress routes in high buildings, for example in hotels, are not regulated in the Building Code.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 108 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-52229Local ID: 95c815f9-d3af-4555-9f4f-5e3edbb4804dOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-52229DiVA: diva2:1025599
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 15 credits
Fire Protection Engineer, bachelor's level
Validerat; 20160229 (global_studentproject_submitter)2016-10-042016-10-04Bibliographically approved