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Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aims of this thesis were to develop and evaluate a screening instrument designed to detect gaming addiction symptoms in adolescents, to study associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms, to investigate the stability of problematic gaming, and to examine possible associations between gaming at baseline (W1) with problem gambling three years later (W2).

The study population consisted of adolescents from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland SALVe Cohort (adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, and their parents), in two waves (2012, n = 1887; 2015, n = 1576), and adolescents from child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in Västmanland (2014, n = 242).

The development of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) was based upon the research literature on gaming, gambling, and addiction. An expert panel estimated the content validity of the GAIT and found it to be excellent. Additional psychometric evaluations of the GAIT and the parent version, GAIT-P, were conducted and it was found that both versions showed promising psychometric results, with high internal consistency, high concurrent validity, high concordance, unidimensionality, and high factor loadings, although poor model fit in exploratory factor analysis. Self- and parent-rated prevalence of gaming addiction symptoms were estimated at 1.3% with the GAIT and 2.4% with the GAIT-P in 13- and 15-year-olds.

Self-rated problematic gaming above the cutoff had a boy to girl ratio of approximately 5:1 in both the SALVe Cohort and the clinical sample, whereas more girls than boys reported symptoms above the cutoff for ADHD, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like-experiences. ADHD, depression, and anxiety symptoms were associated with odds ratios of 2.43, 2.47, and 2.06, respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Furthermore, problematic gaming was stable over time, and problematic gaming at the first wave was associated with problem gambling three years later.

It is important to screen for possible co-occurring symptoms among those who seek treatment and among those who appear to have symptoms of gaming, gambling, or psychiatric symptoms. Ongoing evaluation of adequate screening and diagnostic measurements, and the development and evaluation of treatments for problematic gaming, gaming addiction, and comorbid conditions are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1268
Keyword [en]
Adolescent, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, gambling, gaming, psychometrics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304046ISBN: 978-91-554-9730-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-304046DiVA: diva2:1023818
Public defence
2016-12-16, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2016-11-28
List of papers
1. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: The Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: The Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 56, no 4, 458-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n=7), experiential adolescent raters (n=10), and parent raters (n=10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.

Keyword
Addiction, adolescence, computer gaming, Internet gaming disorder, psychometry, video gaming
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260283 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12196 (DOI)000358042800012 ()25615802 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding: Svenska Spel Research Council, The Uppsala and Orebro Regional Research Council, Fredrik and Ingrid Thurings Foundation, the County Council of Vastmanland, Konig-Soderstromska foundation, The Swedish Psychiatric Foundation, and The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS)

Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2016-10-04
2. Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 56, no 6, 726-735 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) and its parent version (GAIT-P), in a representative community sample of adolescents and parents in Vastmanland, Sweden. Self-rated and parent-rated gaming addictive symptoms identified by GAIT and GAIT-P were analyzed for frequency of endorsement, internal consistency, concordance, factor structure, prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), concurrence with the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents, 7-item version (GAS) and the parent version of GAS (GAS-P), and for sex differences. The 12-month prevalence of IGD was found to be 1.3% with GAIT and 2.4% with GAIT-P. Results also indicate promising psychometric results within this population, with high internal consistency, and high concurrent validity with GAS and GAS-P. Concordance between adolescents and parents ratings was high, although moderate in girls. Although exploratory factor analysis indicated poor model fit, it also indicated unidimensionality and high factor loadings in all analyses. GAIT and GAIT-P are suitable for continued use in measuring gaming addiction in adolescents, and, with the additional two items, they now cover all nine IGD criteria.

Keyword
Psychometric, adolescent, gaming addiction, IGD, DSM-5
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269967 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12250 (DOI)000365031100017 ()26440139 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Swedish Brain Foundation
Available from: 2015-12-19 Created: 2015-12-19 Last updated: 2016-10-04
3. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples
2016 (English)In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 61, 8-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Vastmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N = 1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Vastmanland (N = 242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-333), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

Keyword
Problematic gaming, Gaming addiction, ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, Psychotic-like experiences
National Category
Substance Abuse Psychiatry Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300426 (URN)10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.001 (DOI)000379630700002 ()27203825 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Swedish Brain Foundation, F02015-0315Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00897Åke Wiberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
4. A longitudinal study of the stability of problematic gaming and associations with problem gambling, among Swedish adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A longitudinal study of the stability of problematic gaming and associations with problem gambling, among Swedish adolescents
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Adolescence; Behavioral addiction; Comorbidity; Gaming problems; Gambling problems
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303918 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-10-04

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