Hydraulic Conductivity in Aitik Tailing Deposit
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
The Aitik tailing dam is one of the largest tailing dams in the Europe. Several investigations have been done to avoid any instability and environmental problems.Acid mine drainage (AMD) should be avoided in environmental aspects. In order to avoid oxidization, one method is covering tailing deposit by water. Hydraulic conductivity is the most important parameter to be measured for designing water cover closure for the Ailtik tailing deposit.In addition, in order to have a stable dam, it is necessary to study the tailing deposit as well. First of all, tailing materials are used in the dam constructions. On the other hand, materials close to the embankment will affect dam safety. Water level behind the embankment is one of the most important factors of stability too.In this study geotechnical properties of tailings were determined but the main goal was hydraulic conductivity which is vital for modeling the tailing deposit. The relations between hydraulic conductivity and other properties were also determined.Hydraulic conductivity was presented in its vertical and lateral distribution. Wide variety in the ratio in each level has been observed due to different locations of sampling, but the ratio between mean value of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and mean value of vertical hydraulic conductivity is about two. Investigation indicates hydraulic conductivity varies from 2.4E-08 m/s to 1.9E-05 m/s in the investigation area and generally it decreases versus distance from embankment. 2.8E-06 m/s can be considered as a hydraulic conductivity mean value of investigation area.Permeability test was done on disturbed samples as well by compacting specimen to the dry density that was already measured in the field. Mean value of hydraulic conductivity of disturbed samples is 1.8E-06 m/s; this is in a good agreement with those of undisturbed samples.Some empirical equations such as Kozeny-Carman (KC), Hazen, and NAVFAC etc. are common to predict hydraulic conductivity. First of all, due the conditions for applying these equations, some of equations cannot be applied for tailing materials. On the other hand, all these equations are presented for natural soil while tailing materials are crushed materials. However, modified Kozeny-Carman results are in good agreements with the hydraulic conductivity of both disturbed and undisturbed specimen.The study has included a geotechnical field survey and subsequent laboratory investigations. The aim of the field survey was to explore the stratigraphy of the geological formation and collect samples for laboratory testing. The Aitik tailing deposit consists of profiles of sandy, silty sand soil and randomly, some layers of silt or clay.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 108 p.
Technology, hydraulic conductivity, empirical equations, Aitik tailing deposit, acid mine drainage (AMD), void ratio
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-50049Local ID: 756b7266-8649-45c5-a76f-66942d2b6a1eOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-50049DiVA: diva2:1023402
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Civil Engineering, master's level
Validerat; 20120614 (anonymous)2016-10-042016-10-04Bibliographically approved