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Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Ett motiverande ledarskap : multidimensionalitet och longitudinella samband med idrottares motivation och välbefinnande (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Coaches play a central role in shaping the sport environment for young athletes. This thesis is focused on the leadership process in sports and how coaches’ autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles longitudinally are related to young athletes’ motivation and ill- and well-being. The aim is also to examine psychometric multidimensionality in measures of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles. Questionnaire data from young athletes were used in the empirical studies. In Study 1, we examined an adaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being). The results showed that within-person changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being were all positively correlated. Higher self-determined motivation and well-being early in the season longitudinally predicted higher levels of perceived autonomy support from the coach. Higher self-determined motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in perceived autonomy support and well-being over the season. In Study 2, we examined a maladaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between coaches’ controlling behaviors, controlled motivation, and ill-being). The findings demonstrated that athletes who perceived their coach as more controlling reported higher controlled motivation at the end of the season and that higher controlled motivation early in the season predicted higher ill-being at the end of the season. Controlled motivation was also a positive predictor of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors at the within-person level. Study 1 and 2 suggest that individual factors (e.g., motivation and well-being) seemed to function as important determinants of how athletes perceived their coach and future research should explore the underlying mechanisms through which these processes occur. In Study 3, we examined psychometric multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive (Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale-Coach [ISS-C]) and controlling (Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale [CCBS]) interpersonal styles. The analyses indicated that the ISS-C is not multidimensional; it appears to comprise a single factor. Three of the four subscales of the CCBS appear to share a common core, whereas the fourth subscale (i.e., controlling use of rewards) seems to represent a slightly different aspect of a controlling interpersonal style. These results bring into question the multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ interpersonal styles. Neither measure displayed a coherent multidimensional pattern, indicating a need for better alignment between theory and measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 105 p.
Keyword [en]
athletes, change, leadership, motivation, multidimensionality, psychological health, self-determination theory, sports, structural equation modeling
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126380ISBN: 978-91-7601-565-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-126380DiVA: diva2:1014932
Public defence
2016-10-28, Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Changes in Perceived Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, Motivation, and Well-Being in Young Elite Athletes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in Perceived Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, Motivation, and Well-Being in Young Elite Athletes
2015 (English)In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, Vol. 4, no 1, 50-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 4-stage motivational sequence was investigated, in line with self-determination theory (perceived autonomy support from the coach → need satisfaction → motivation → psychological well-being). More specifically, we examined level–change associations and relations between intraindividual changes in these variables over the course of an athletic season. Young elite skiers (109 females, 138 males) enrolled at sport high schools in Sweden responded to questionnaires assessing perceived autonomy support from the coach, need satisfaction, motivation, and psychological well-being at 2 time points separated by approximately 5 months. A latent difference score model were used to analyze the data. Initial level of need satisfaction at Time 1 negatively predicted change in perceived autonomy support, motivation, and well-being, and initial level of motivation at Time 1 positively predicted change in perceived autonomy support and change in well-being. Correlations between intraindividual changes in the study variables were estimated and the variables were all positively correlated. These results indicate that the relations between these variables are complex, dynamic, and that more attention should be given to potential reciprocal effects between the variables in this motivational sequence.

Keyword
intraindividual change, interpersonal environment, basic psychological needs, motivation, health
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93441 (URN)10.1037/spy0000027 (DOI)000356672200005 ()
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2011-0177
Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved
2. Longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach
2017 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, 205-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

Keyword
Bayesian estimation, Depression/anxiety, Growth models, Interpersonal control, Leadership, Sports, CI EL, 1987, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, V53, P1024 nsdale Chris, 2011, MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, V43, P913
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135274 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.002 (DOI)000400038900023 ()
Note

Originally published in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved
3. Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches’ interpersonal styles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches’ interpersonal styles
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, 1303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.

Keyword
Controlling behaviors, Dimensionality, Leadership, Need support, Self-report scales
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107023 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01303 (DOI)000360530500002 ()
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2014-0043
Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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