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Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8605-1850
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5194-9430
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
2018 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117
Keywords [en]
Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799DOI: 10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805ISI: 000428728900006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-292799DiVA, id: diva2:926672
Projects
MODAS
Funder
VINNOVA, 2012-03678Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Context: The abstract term for the concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context: The abstract term for the concrete
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the term 'context' and the aim has been to reason about the term in order to see whether it is possible to reach a satisfactory understanding of the concept. But the thesis is also a journey into human reasoning and conveys a certain view of human cognition. It aims to synthesise results of studies within psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and human-computer interaction. My understanding is that context is not something we are a part of, but rather something we create mentally in relation a specific goal. Determination of something ambiguous thus comes from top-down processes related to a goal. I believe context has been wrongly interpreted in HCI as that which a user is situated in and which a product is being used in. I suggest instead a separation between the user environment and the user context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2016
Series
Information technology licentiate theses: Licentiate theses from the Department of Information Technology, ISSN 1404-5117 ; 2016-006
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292806 (URN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
2. Cognitive work analysis in practice: Adaptation to project scope and industrial context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive work analysis in practice: Adaptation to project scope and industrial context
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework is widely used by researchers for the analysis of complex systems. It, however, lacks the same impact amongst industrial practitioners. This thesis investigates possible adaptations of the framework to project and industrial constraints, and the consequences associated with such adaptations. Long haul heavy vehicle transportation is the application domain for the work presented in the thesis. The CWA framework has been applied within the Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems (MODAS) project. Adaptations have been made to fit the framework within the project constraints and the industrial contexts. Interviews with stakeholders in an industrial organization regarding possible use of models from the CWA framework have been made. The CWA was scaled to available resources when applied within the MODAS project. From this we realized that prioritization of work activity can have consequences on the resulting systems ability to handle unforeseen events. Further, a focus on the current system probed a rapid out-dating of the analysis due to technical development. The conclusion is that even if advantages are lost during adaptation due to practical constraints, the CWA framework could add value to practitioners within industry if adapted to the industrial context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2016
Series
Information technology licentiate theses: Licentiate theses from the Department of Information Technology, ISSN 1404-5117 ; 2016-005
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284334 (URN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-04-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
3. Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 82
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1765
Keywords
knowledge elicitation, expertise, context, human factors
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Applied Psychology
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372725 (URN)978-91-513-0555-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-08, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-15 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-03-18

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