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Arctic Ocean Water Mass Transformation in S-T Coordinates
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-9591-124X
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 1025-1050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, watermass transformations in the Arctic Ocean are studied using a recently developed salinity-temperature (S-T) framework. The framework allows the water mass transformations to be succinctly quantified by computing the surface and internal diffusive fluxes in S-T coordinates. This study shows how the method can be applied to a specific oceanic region, in this case the Arctic Ocean, by including the advective exchange of water masses across the boundaries of the region. Based on a simulation with a global ocean circulation model, the authors examine the importance of various parameterized mixing processes and surface fluxes for the transformation of water across isohaline and isothermal surfaces in the ArcticOcean. The model-based results reveal a broadly realistic Arctic Ocean where the inflowing Atlantic and Pacific waters are primarily cooled and freshened before exiting back to the North Atlantic. In the model, the water mass transformation in the T direction is primarily accomplished by the surface heat flux. However, the surface freshwater flux plays a minor role in the transformation of water toward lower salinities, which is mainly driven by a downgradient mixing of salt in the interior ocean. Near the freezing line, the seasonal melt and growth of sea ice influences the transformation pattern.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2015. Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 1025-1050
Nationell ämneskategori
Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
Forskningsämne
atmosfärvetenskap och oceanografi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-117335DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0197.1ISI: 000352542800006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-117335DiVA, id: diva2:812425
Anmärkning

AuthorCount:4;

Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-18 Skapad: 2015-05-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Freshwater processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Freshwater processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean
2014 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores freshwater-related processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of these processes is important from both a local and a global perspective. Globally, because the export of cold and low saline water and sea ice might influence the North Atlantic and global meridional overturning circulation. Locally, because freshwater processes affect the vertical stratification and permit favorable conditions for the ice cover.

Models of different complexity are the main tools of the present work. A part of the material considers how these models can be used to examine the key processes governing freshwater balance. Additionally, the freshwater budgets amongst 10 different ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) are compared and robust features and weaknesses identified.

A large part considers the freshwater processes governing the stratification with an emphasis on the low saline upper parts. The interactions between freshwater sources and sinks are studied in an OGCM using passive tracers. It is found that the composition, pathways and shelf-basin exchange of low saline water primarily involve processes linked to Siberian runoff, Pacific water and sea-ice melting and formation. Motivated by observed changes and paleorecords the sensitivity of the stratification is further explored in freshwater perturbation experiments with an OGCM. The response yields a deeper halocline for decreasing freshwater input, in line with a theoretical model.

The final part focuses on a new framework for analyzing water mass transformations. In the framework volume, heat and salt budgets are computed in salinity-temperature space. Using different OGCMs it is shown how surface and interior processes transform inflowing waters towards colder and fresher waters and how the halocline renewal rate can be estimated. Limiting cases for the water mass transformation balance are identified by separating contributions from surface, internal and boundary fluxes.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 2014. s. 44
Nationell ämneskategori
Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser
Forskningsämne
atmosfärvetenskap och oceanografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107594 (URN)978-91-7447-998-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2014-11-05, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-14 Skapad: 2014-09-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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Pemberton, PerNilsson, Johan
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Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU)
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Journal of Physical Oceanography
Oceanografi, hydrologi och vattenresurser

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