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Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Vise andre og tillknytning
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 14, 23- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods: A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions: In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2014. Vol. 14, 23- s.
Emneord [en]
Child sexual abuse, Community perceptions, Focus group discussions, Rape, Rural, Sexual violence, Tanzania
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232600DOI: 10.1186/1472-698X-14-23ISI: 000340801600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-232600DiVA: diva2:749311
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-09-23 Laget: 2014-09-22 Sist oppdatert: 2015-10-01bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Improving Health-seeking Behavior and Care among Sexual Violence Survivors in Rural Tanzania
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improving Health-seeking Behavior and Care among Sexual Violence Survivors in Rural Tanzania
2015 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to assess the effects of providing community education and training to healthcare workers to improve community response, healthcare and support for rape survivors in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. The overall design of the project was to begin with an exploratory study (Paper I) to establish the community’s perceptions towards sexual violence and their perceived recommendations to address this issue. Using a structured questionnaire, the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence were determined along with their associations with demographic factors (Paper II). Papers III and IV assessed the effect of healthcare workers’ training and a community information package, respectively, using a controlled quasi-experimental design. The findings highlighted the social norms and variety of barriers that impacted negatively on the survivors’ care-seeking from support services and health outcomes. Increasing age and higher education were associated with better knowledge and less accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Training on the management of sexual violence was effective in improving healthcare workers’ knowledge and practice but not attitude. Knowledge on sexual violence among the communities in the intervention and comparison areas increased significantly over the study period; from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area. In the intervention area, women had significantly less knowledge than men at baseline (53% Vs 64%, p<.001).There was a reduction, though not significantly, in acceptance attitudes from 28.1% to 21.8% in favor of women. In conclusion, the current intervention provides evidence that healthcare workers’ training and community education is effective in improving knowledge but not attitudes towards sexual violence. The findings have potential implications for interventions aimed at preventing and responding to violence. The broader societal norms that hinder rape disclosure need to be re-addressed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 74 s.
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1133
Emneord
healthcare worker, community, sexual violence, rape, intervention, quasi-experimental, qualitative, rural, Tanzania
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Obstetrik och gynekologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261902 (URN)978-91-554-9329-5 (ISBN)
Disputas
2015-10-26, Rosensalen, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Entrance 95/96, Uppsala, 09:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-30 Laget: 2015-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2015-10-01

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